1,059 research outputs found

    Explaining the Black-box Smoothly- A Counterfactual Approach

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    We propose a BlackBox \emph{Counterfactual Explainer} that is explicitly developed for medical imaging applications. Classical approaches (e.g. saliency maps) assessing feature importance do not explain \emph{how} and \emph{why} variations in a particular anatomical region is relevant to the outcome, which is crucial for transparent decision making in healthcare application. Our framework explains the outcome by gradually \emph{exaggerating} the semantic effect of the given outcome label. Given a query input to a classifier, Generative Adversarial Networks produce a progressive set of perturbations to the query image that gradually changes the posterior probability from its original class to its negation. We design the loss function to ensure that essential and potentially relevant details, such as support devices, are preserved in the counterfactually generated images. We provide an extensive evaluation of different classification tasks on the chest X-Ray images. Our experiments show that a counterfactually generated visual explanation is consistent with the disease's clinical relevant measurements, both quantitatively and qualitatively.Comment: Under review for IEEE-TMI journa

    Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

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    Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, 1996, and Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 1996.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 59-60).by Brian R. Pollack.M.S

    Development of the legitimacy threshold scale

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    A consensus in the literature supports the premise that legitimacy attainment facilitates favorable judgments from key stakeholders regarding the acceptability, appropriateness and worthiness of entrepreneurs and their efforts in emerging ventures. However, although legitimacy attainment is a milestone that emerging ventures strive to reach, as researchers we do not yet have a measure that examines whether a firm is operating pre- versus post-legitimacy. Accordingly, we develop the legitimacy threshold scale (LTS) that will facilitate the assessment of activities performed pre- and post-legitimacy in emerging ventures

    Carbon Free Boston: Buildings Technical Report

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    Part of a series of reports that includes: Carbon Free Boston: Summary Report; Carbon Free Boston: Social Equity Report; Carbon Free Boston: Technical Summary; Carbon Free Boston: Transportation Technical Report; Carbon Free Boston: Waste Technical Report; Carbon Free Boston: Energy Technical Report; Carbon Free Boston: Offsets Technical Report; Available at http://sites.bu.edu/cfb/OVERVIEW: Boston is known for its historic iconic buildings, from the Paul Revere House in the North End, to City Hall in Government Center, to the Old South Meeting House in Downtown Crossing, to the African Meeting House on Beacon Hill, to 200 Clarendon (the Hancock Tower) in Back Bay, to Abbotsford in Roxbury. In total, there are over 86,000 buildings that comprise more than 647 million square feet of area. Most of these buildings will still be in use in 2050. Floorspace (square footage) is almost evenly split between residential and non-residential uses, but residential buildings account for nearly 80,000 (93 percent) of the 86,000 buildings. Boston’s buildings are used for a diverse range of activities that include homes, offices, hospitals, factories, laboratories, schools, public service, retail, hotels, restaurants, and convention space. Building type strongly influences energy use; for example, restaurants, hospitals, and laboratories have high energy demands compared to other commercial uses. Boston’s building stock is characterized by thousands of turn-of-the-20th century homes and a postWorld War II building boom that expanded both residential buildings and commercial space. Boston is in the midst of another boom in building construction that is transforming neighborhoods across the city. [TRUNCATED]Published versio

    Mental Health Service Utilization before and after Receipt of a Service‚ÄźConnected Disability Award for PTSD: Findings from a National Sample

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146624/1/hesr12859.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146624/2/hesr12859-sup-0001-AppendixSA1.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146624/3/hesr12859_am.pd

    Imaging the Earth's Interior: the Angular Distribution of Terrestrial Neutrinos

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    Decays of radionuclides throughout the Earth's interior produce geothermal heat, but also are a source of antineutrinos. The (angle-integrated) geoneutrino flux places an integral constraint on the terrestrial radionuclide distribution. In this paper, we calculate the angular distribution of geoneutrinos, which opens a window on the differential radionuclide distribution. We develop the general formalism for the neutrino angular distribution, and we present the inverse transformation which recovers the terrestrial radioisotope distribution given a measurement of the neutrino angular distribution. Thus, geoneutrinos not only allow a means to image the Earth's interior, but offering a direct measure of the radioactive Earth, both (1) revealing the Earth's inner structure as probed by radionuclides, and (2) allowing for a complete determination of the radioactive heat generation as a function of radius. We present the geoneutrino angular distribution for the favored Earth model which has been used to calculate geoneutrino flux. In this model the neutrino generation is dominated by decays in the Earth's mantle and crust; this leads to a very ``peripheral'' angular distribution, in which 2/3 of the neutrinos come from angles > 60 degrees away from the downward vertical. We note the possibility of that the Earth's core contains potassium; different geophysical predictions lead to strongly varying, and hence distinguishable, central intensities (< 30 degrees from the downward vertical). Other uncertainties in the models, and prospects for observation of the geoneutrino angular distribution, are briefly discussed. We conclude by urging the development and construction of antineutrino experiments with angular sensitivity. (Abstract abridged.)Comment: 25 pages, RevTeX, 7 figures. Comments welcom
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