48 research outputs found

    SiPM Gain Stabilization Studies for Adaptive Power Supply

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    We present herein gain stabilization studies of SiPMs using a climate chamber at CERN. We present results for four detectors not tested before, three from Hamamatsu and one from KETEK. Two of the Hamamatsu SiPMs are novel sensors with trenches that reduce cross talk. We use an improved readout system with a digital oscilloscope controlled with a dedicated LabView program. We improved and automized the analysis to deal with large datasets. We have measured the gain-versus-bias-voltage dependence at fixed temperature and gain-versus-temperature dependence at fixed bias voltage to determine the bias voltage dependence on temperature V(T)V(T) for stable gain. We show that the gain remains stable to better than ±0.5%\pm 0.5\% in the 20C30C20^\circ \rm C - 30^\circ C temperature range if the bias voltage is properly adjusted with temperature.Comment: 14 pages, 41 figures, Talk presented at the International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS15), Whistler, Canada, 2-6 November 201

    Hidden genetic diversity of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ strains in Istrian vineyards: how small can be rich

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    Grapevine Yellows (GY) are economically important diseases associated to phytoplasmas (genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’), uncultivable bacteria from the class Mollicutes. In Euro-mediterranean region, GY are mainly attributed to phytoplasmas belonging to ribosomal 16SrXII-A subgroup ('Ca. P. solani'; Bois Noir phytoplasma; BNp) and 16SrV group (flavescence dorée phytoplasma; FDp), with the latter one being a quarantine pathogen (Plavec et al. 2015, Quaglino et al. 2013). Although symptomatology can be similar, epidemiology of FDp and BNp is very different as they are transmitted by different insect vectors and could have different alternative hosts. In Croatia, GY diseases have been continuously monitored since 1997 with FDp appearing only in 2009 (Šeruga Musić et al. 2011). While BNp is more diverse and widespread, FDp belonging to 3 map phylogenetic clusters are differently distributed throughout regions. Istria is heavily affected with FDp since 2014 with only one genotype (mapFD2/M54) being attributed to great losses (Plavec et al. 2019). On the contrary, information on BNp diversity is scarce with only couple of genotypes detected so far (Plavec et al, manuscript in preparation). Therefore, the aim of this case study was to assess the diversity of BNp genotypes in a small selected area of Istria, in order to draw attention to the presence and importance of BNp as GY agent in this important Croatian viticultural region

    A Proof of Concept Study on Real-Pime LiMAx CYP1A2 Liver Function Assessment of Donor Grafts During Normothermic Machine Perfusion

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    No single reliable parameter exists to assess liver graft function of extended criteria donors during ex-vivo normothermic machine perfusion (NMP). The liver maximum capacity (LiMAx) test is a clinically validated cytochromal breath test, measuring liver function based on 13CO2 production. As an innovative concept, we aimed to integrate the LiMAx breath test with NMP to assess organ function. Eleven human livers were perfused using NMP. After one hour of stabilization, LiMAx testing was performed. Injury markers (ALT, AST, miR-122, FMN, and Suzuki-score) and lactate clearance were measured and related to LiMAx values. LiMAx values ranged between 111 and 1838 µg/kg/h, and performing consecutive LiMAx tests during longer NMP was feasible. No correlation was found between LiMAx value and miR-122 and FMN levels in the perfusate. However, a significant inverse correlation was found between LiMAx value and histological injury (Suzuki-score, R = − 0.874, P < 0.001), AST (R = − 0.812, P = 0.004) and ALT (R = − 0.687, P = 0.028). Furthermore, a significant correlation was found with lactate clearance (R = 0.683, P = 0.043). We demonstrate, as proof of principle, that liver function during NMP can be quantified using the LiMAx test, illustrating a positive correlation with traditional injury markers. This new breath-test application separates livers with adequate cytochromal liver function from inadequate ones and may support decision-making in the safe utilization of extended criteria donor grafts

    Hypothermic Machine Perfusion in Liver Transplantation - A Randomized Trial

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    BACKGROUND Transplantation of livers obtained from donors after circulatory death is associated with an increased risk of nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion of livers may reduce the incidence of biliary complications, but data from prospective, controlled studies are limited. METHODS In this multicenter, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were undergoing transplantation of a liver obtained from a donor after circulatory death to receive that liver either after hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (machine-perfusion group) or after conventional static cold storage alone (control group). The primary end point was the incidence of nonanastomotic biliary strictures within 6 months after transplantation. Secondary end points included other graft-related and general complications. RESULTS A total of 160 patients were enrolled, of whom 78 received a machine-perfused liver and 78 received a liver after static cold storage only (4 patients did not receive a liver in this trial). Nonanastomotic biliary strictures occurred in 6% of the patients in the machine-perfusion group and in 18% of those in the control group (risk ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.94; P=0.03). Postreperfusion syndrome occurred in 12% of the recipients of a machine-perfused liver and in 27% of those in the control group (risk ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.91). Early allograft dysfunction occurred in 26% of the machine-perfused livers, as compared with 40% of control livers (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.96). The cumulative number of treatments for nonanastomotic biliary strictures was lower by a factor of almost 4 after machine perfusion, as compared with control. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion led to a lower risk of nonanastomotic biliary strictures following the transplantation of livers obtained from donors after circulatory death than conventional static cold storage

    WGS-based telomere length analysis in Dutch family trios implicates stronger maternal inheritance and a role for RRM1 gene

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    Telomere length (TL) regulation is an important factor in ageing, reproduction and cancer development. Genetic, hereditary and environmental factors regulating TL are currently widely investigated, however, their relative contribution to TL variability is still understudied. We have used whole genome sequencing data of 250 family trios from the Genome of the Netherlands project to perform computational measurement of TL and a series of regression and genome-wide association analyses to reveal TL inheritance patterns and associated genetic factors. Our results confirm that TL is a largely heritable trait, primarily with mother’s, and, to a lesser extent, with father’s TL having the strongest influence on the offspring. In this cohort, mother’s, but not father’s age at conception was positively linked to offspring TL. Age-related TL attrition of 40 bp/year had relatively small influence on TL variability. Finally, we have identified TL-associated variations in ribonuclease reductase catalytic subunit M1 (RRM1 gene), which is known to regulate telomere maintenance in yeast. We also highlight the importance of multivariate approach and the limitations of existing tools for the analysis of TL as a polygenic heritable quantitative trait

    Skewed X-inactivation is common in the general female population

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    X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. To this end, we analyzed blood-derived RNA and whole-genome sequencing data from 79 female children and their parents from the Genome of the Netherlands project. We calculated the median ratio of the paternal over total counts at all X-chromosomal heterozygous single-nucleotide variants with coverage ≥10. We identified two individuals where the same X-chromosome was inactivated in all cells. Imbalanced expression of the two X-chromosomes (ratios ≤0.35 or ≥0.65) was observed in nearly 50% of the population. The empirically observed skewing is explained by a theoretical model where X-inactivation takes place in an embryonic stage in which eight cells give rise to the hematopoietic compartment. Genes escaping X-inactivation are expressed from both alleles and therefore demonstrate less skewing than inactivated genes. Using this characteristic, we identified three novel escapee genes (SSR4, REPS2, and SEPT6), but did not find support for many previously reported escapee genes in blood. Our collective data suggest that skewed X-inactivation is common in the general population. This may contribute to manifestation of symptoms in carriers of recessive X-linked disorders. We recommend that X-inactivation results should not be used lightly in the interpretation of X-linked variants

    Retrospective evaluation of whole exome and genome mutation calls in 746 cancer samples

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    Funder: NCI U24CA211006Abstract: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) curated consensus somatic mutation calls using whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), respectively. Here, as part of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, which aggregated whole genome sequencing data from 2,658 cancers across 38 tumour types, we compare WES and WGS side-by-side from 746 TCGA samples, finding that ~80% of mutations overlap in covered exonic regions. We estimate that low variant allele fraction (VAF < 15%) and clonal heterogeneity contribute up to 68% of private WGS mutations and 71% of private WES mutations. We observe that ~30% of private WGS mutations trace to mutations identified by a single variant caller in WES consensus efforts. WGS captures both ~50% more variation in exonic regions and un-observed mutations in loci with variable GC-content. Together, our analysis highlights technological divergences between two reproducible somatic variant detection efforts

    Research and Design of a Routing Protocol in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

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    无线传感器网络,作为全球未来十大技术之一,集成了传感器技术、嵌入式计算技术、分布式信息处理和自组织网技术,可实时感知、采集、处理、传输网络分布区域内的各种信息数据,在军事国防、生物医疗、环境监测、抢险救灾、防恐反恐、危险区域远程控制等领域具有十分广阔的应用前景。 本文研究分析了无线传感器网络的已有路由协议,并针对大规模的无线传感器网络设计了一种树状路由协议,它根据节点地址信息来形成路由,从而简化了复杂繁冗的路由表查找和维护,节省了不必要的开销,提高了路由效率,实现了快速有效的数据传输。 为支持此路由协议本文提出了一种自适应动态地址分配算——ADAR(AdaptiveDynamicAddre...As one of the ten high technologies in the future, wireless sensor network, which is the integration of micro-sensors, embedded computing, modern network and Ad Hoc technologies, can apperceive, collect, process and transmit various information data within the region. It can be used in military defense, biomedical, environmental monitoring, disaster relief, counter-terrorism, remote control of haz...学位:工学硕士院系专业:信息科学与技术学院通信工程系_通信与信息系统学号:2332007115216