879 research outputs found

    Observational studies of scatterometer ocean vector winds in the presence of dynamic air-sea interactions

    Get PDF
    Ocean vector wind measurements produced by satellite scatterometers are used in many applications across many disciplines, from forcing ocean circulation models and improving weather forecasts, to aiding in rescue operations and helping marine management services, and even mapping energy resources. However, a scatterometer does not in fact measure wind directly; received radar backscatter is proportional to the roughness of the ocean\u27s surface, which is primarily modified by wind speed and direction. As scatterometry has evolved in recent decades, highly calibrated geophysical model functions have been designed to transform this received backscatter into vector winds. Because these products are used in so many applications, it is crucial to understand any limitations of this process. For instance, a number of assumptions are routinely invoked when interpreting scatterometer retrievals in areas of complex air-sea dynamics without, perhaps, sufficient justification from supporting observations. This dissertation uses satellite data, in situ measurements, and model simulations to evaluate these assumptions. Robustness is assured by using multiple types of satellite scatterometer data from different sensors and of different resolutions, including an experimental ultra-high resolution product that first required validation in the region of study. After this validation survey, a subsequent investigation used the multiple data resolutions to focus on the influence of ocean surface currents on scatterometer retrievals. Collocated scatterometer and buoy wind data along with buoy surface current measurements support the theory that scatterometer winds respond to the relative motion of the ocean surface; in other words, that they can effectively be considered current-relative, as has been generally assumed. Another major control on scatterometer retrievals is atmospheric stability, which affects both surface roughness and wind shear. A study using wind, stress, temperature, and pressure measurements at a mooring in the Gulf Stream as well as collocated scatterometer data proved that the scatterometer responds as expected to changes in stability. Therefore, scatterometer retrievals can effectively be used to evaluate changes in wind due to speed adjustment over temperature fronts. Given the conclusions of these individual studies, this work collectively solidifies decades of theory and validates the use of scatterometer winds in areas of complex air-sea interaction

    Der patentrechtliche Unterlassungsanspruch

    Get PDF
    The question of possible limitations to injunctive relief under patent law has once again become the focus of public attention. The core of the discussion is whether the enforcement of injunctive relief in its current form can lead to unjustified hardship for infringers and third parties. As a result of the most recent debate, the German lawmaker added a proportionality defence in the 2nd PatModG. Against this backdrop, the author examines the current concept of injunctive relief in patent law, its history, scope and reform in order to develop a practice-oriented solution for resolving dysfunctional case constellations.PublishedDie seit langer Zeit bestehende Frage nach einer Einschränkung des patentrechtlichen Unterlassungsanspruchs ist zuletzt erneut in den Fokus der Öffentlichkeit gerückt. Kern der Diskussion ist, ob die Durchsetzung des Unterlassungsanspruchs in seiner bisherigen Gestalt zu nicht mehr gerechtfertigten Härten für Verletzer und Dritte führen kann. Als Ergebnis der jüngsten Debatte hat der Gesetzgeber den Anspruch durch das das 2. PatModG um einen Verhältnismäßigkeitseinwand ergänzt. Vor diesem Hintergrund widmet sich die Arbeit dem Unterlassungsanspruch, seiner Historie, Reichweite sowie der Reform und erarbeitet ein praxisorientiertes Konzept zur Auflösung dysfunktionaler Fallkonstellationen

    Outcomes of early switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics on medical wards

    Get PDF
    Objectives To evaluate outcomes following implementation of a checklist with criteria for switching from intravenous (iv) to oral antibiotics on unselected patients on two general medical wards. Methods During a 12 month intervention study, a printed checklist of criteria for switching on the third day of iv treatment was placed in the medical charts. The decision to switch was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Outcome parameters of a 4 month control phase before intervention were compared with the equivalent 4 month period during the intervention phase to control for seasonal confounding (before-after study; April to July of 2006 and 2007, respectively): 250 episodes (215 patients) during the intervention period were compared with the control group of 176 episodes (162 patients). The main outcome measure was the duration of iv therapy. Additionally, safety, adherence to the checklist, reasons against switching patients and antibiotic cost were analysed during the whole year of the intervention (n = 698 episodes). Results In 38% (246/646) of episodes of continued iv antibiotic therapy, patients met all criteria for switching to oral antibiotics on the third day, and 151/246 (61.4%) were switched. The number of days of iv antibiotic treatment were reduced by 19% (95% confidence interval 9%-29%, P = 0.001; 6.0-5.0 days in median) with no increase in complications. The main reasons against switching were persisting fever (41%, n = 187) and absence of clinical improvement (41%, n = 185). Conclusions On general medical wards, a checklist with bedside criteria for switching to oral antibiotics can shorten the duration of iv therapy without any negative effect on treatment outcome. The criteria were successfully applied to all patients on the wards, independently of the indication (empirical or directed treatment), the type of (presumed) infection, the underlying disease or the group of antibiotics being use

    A Multi-wavelength Study of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in the Triple-Merger Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 with MUSTANG and Bolocam

    Get PDF
    We present 90, 140, and 268GHz sub-arcminute resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in MACSJ0717.5+3745. Our 90GHz SZE data result in a sensitive, 34uJy/bm map at 13" resolution using MUSTANG. Our 140 and 268GHz SZE imaging, with resolutions of 58" and 31" and sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.3mJy/beam respectively, was obtained using Bolocam. We compare these maps to a 2-dimensional pressure map derived from Chandra X-ray observations. Our MUSTANG data confirm previous indications from Chandra of a pressure enhancement due to shock-heated, >20keV gas immediately adjacent to extended radio emission seen in low-frequency radio maps. The MUSTANG data also detect pressure substructure that is not well-constrained by the X-ray data in the remnant core of a merging subcluster. We find that the small-scale pressure enhancements in the MUSTANG data amount to ~2% of the total pressure measured in the 140GHz Bolocam observations. The X-ray template also fails on larger scales to accurately describe the Bolocam data, particularly at the location of a subcluster known to have a high line of sight optical velocity (~3200km/s). Our Bolocam data are adequately described when we add an additional component - not described by a thermal SZE spectrum - coincident with this subcluster. Using flux densities extracted from our model fits, and marginalizing over the temperature constraints for the region, we fit a thermal+kinetic SZE spectrum to our data and find the subcluster has a best-fit line of sight proper velocity of 3600+3440/-2160km/s. This agrees with the optical velocity estimates for the subcluster. The probability of velocity<0 given our measurements is 2.1%. Repeating this analysis using flux densities measured non-parametrically results in a 3.4% probability of a velocity<=0. We note that this tantalizing result for the kinetic SZE is on resolved, subcluster scales.Comment: 10 Figures, 18 pages. this version corrects issues with the previous arXiv versio

    Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect Observations of Strong Lensing Galaxy Clusters: Probing the Over-Concentration Problem

    Get PDF
    We have measured the Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for a sample of ten strong lensing selected galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev Zel'dovich Array (SZA). The SZA is sensitive to structures on spatial scales of a few arcminutes, while the strong lensing mass modeling constrains the mass at small scales (typically < 30"). Combining the two provides information about the projected concentrations of the strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radii we measure are twice as large as expected given the masses inferred from SZ scaling relations. A Monte Carlo simulation indicates that a sample randomly drawn from the expected distribution would have a larger median Einstein radius than the observed clusters about 3% of the time. The implied overconcentration has been noted in previous studies with smaller samples of lensing clusters. It persists for this sample, with the caveat that this could result from a systematic effect such as if the gas fractions of the strong lensing clusters are substantially below what is expected.Comment: submitte

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties and Purity of a Galaxy Cluster Sample Selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Get PDF
    We present optical and X-ray properties for the first confirmed galaxy cluster sample selected by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect from 148 GHz maps over 455 square degrees of sky made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. These maps, coupled with multi-band imaging on 4-meter-class optical telescopes, have yielded a sample of 23 galaxy clusters with redshifts between 0.118 and 1.066. Of these 23 clusters, 10 are newly discovered. The selection of this sample is approximately mass limited and essentially independent of redshift. We provide optical positions, images, redshifts and X-ray fluxes and luminosities for the full sample, and X-ray temperatures of an important subset. The mass limit of the full sample is around 8e14 Msun, with a number distribution that peaks around a redshift of 0.4. For the 10 highest significance SZE-selected cluster candidates, all of which are optically confirmed, the mass threshold is 1e15 Msun and the redshift range is 0.167 to 1.066. Archival observations from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT provide X-ray luminosities and temperatures that are broadly consistent with this mass threshold. Our optical follow-up procedure also allowed us to assess the purity of the ACT cluster sample. Eighty (one hundred) percent of the 148 GHz candidates with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5.1 (5.7) are confirmed as massive clusters. The reported sample represents one of the largest SZE-selected sample of massive clusters over all redshifts within a cosmologically-significant survey volume, which will enable cosmological studies as well as future studies on the evolution, morphology, and stellar populations in the most massive clusters in the Universe.Comment: 20 pages, 15 figures, 6 tables. Accepted for publication in ApJ. Higher resolution figures available at: http://peumo.rutgers.edu/~felipe/e-prints

    Parameterization Effects in the analysis of AMI Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Observations

    Get PDF
    Most Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray analyses of galaxy clusters try to constrain the cluster total mass and/or gas mass using parameterised models and assumptions of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium. By numerically exploring the probability distributions of the cluster parameters given the simulated interferometric SZ data in the context of Bayesian methods, and assuming a beta-model for the electron number density we investigate the capability of this model and analysis to return the simulated cluster input quantities via three rameterisations. In parameterisation I we assume that the T is an input parameter. We find that parameterisation I can hardly constrain the cluster parameters. We then investigate parameterisations II and III in which fg(r200) replaces temperature as a main variable. In parameterisation II we relate M_T(r200) and T assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that parameterisation II can constrain the cluster physical parameters but the temperature estimate is biased low. In parameterisation III, the virial theorem replaces the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption. We find that parameterisation III results in unbiased estimates of the cluster properties. We generate a second simulated cluster using a generalised NFW (GNFW) pressure profile and analyse it with an entropy based model to take into account the temperature gradient in our analysis and improve the cluster gas density distribution. This model also constrains the cluster physical parameters and the results show a radial decline in the gas temperature as expected. The mean cluster total mass estimates are also within 1 sigma from the simulated cluster true values. However, we find that for at least interferometric SZ analysis in practice at the present time, there is no differences in the AMI visibilities between the two models. This may of course change as the instruments improve.Comment: 19 pages, 13 tables, 24 figure

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations of galaxy clusters out to the virial radius with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager

    Get PDF
    We present observations using the Small Array of the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI; 14-18 GHz) of four Abell and three MACS clusters spanning 0.171-0.686 in redshift. We detect Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals in five of these without any attempt at source subtraction, although strong source contamination is present. With radio-source measurements from high-resolution observations, and under the assumptions of spherical β\beta-model, isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium, a Bayesian analysis of the data in the visibility plane detects extended SZ decrements in all seven clusters over and above receiver noise, radio sources and primary CMB imprints. Bayesian evidence ratios range from 10^{11}:1 to 10^{43}:1 for six of the clusters and 3000:1 for one with substantially less data than the others. We present posterior probability distributions for, e.g., total mass and gas fraction averaged over radii internal to which the mean overdensity is 1000, 500 and 200, r_200 being the virial radius. Reaching r_200 involves some extrapolation for the nearer clusters but not for the more-distant ones. We find that our estimates of gas fraction are low (compared with most in the literature) and decrease with increasing radius. These results appear to be consistent with the notion that gas temperature in fact falls with distance (away from near the cluster centre) out to the virial radius.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, submitted to MNRAS (updated authors and fixed Figure 1

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev Zel'dovich Selected Galaxy Clusters at 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Full text link
    We report on twenty-three clusters detected blindly as Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrements in a 148 GHz, 455 square-degree map of the southern sky made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. All SZ detections announced in this work have confirmed optical counterparts. Ten of the clusters are new discoveries. One newly discovered cluster, ACT-CL J0102-4915, with a redshift of 0.75 (photometric), has an SZ decrement comparable to the most massive systems at lower redshifts. Simulations of the cluster recovery method reproduce the sample purity measured by optical follow-up. In particular, for clusters detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than six, simulations are consistent with optical follow-up that demonstrated this subsample is 100% pure. The simulations further imply that the total sample is 80% complete for clusters with mass in excess of 6x10^14 solar masses referenced to the cluster volume characterized by five hundred times the critical density. The Compton y -- X-ray luminosity mass comparison for the eleven best detected clusters visually agrees with both self-similar and non-adiabatic, simulation-derived scaling laws.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Ap
    • …