16 research outputs found

    Assessment of health behaviour of school-age youth

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    I n t r o d u c t i o n. Adolescence is a very important period for young people as it is the time when the patterns of health behaviour stabilize and in such form may be adopted for the rest of one鈥檚 life. This age group is also most prone to behaviour posing a risk to health and lacking behaviour good for health. The period of education is the most suitable to make teenagers aware of how much depends on themselves. Adolescence is often the time of rebellion and independent decision making which influence both the diet, way of spending fee time, personal and mental hygiene as well as abusing dangerous substance. The aim of the study was to assess the health behaviour of lower secondary school attendees in the scope of diet and physical activity by means of a questionnaire. The materials were based on research regarding health behaviour. The study group consisted of 90 students (60% male, 40% female). A questionnaire was chosen as the study method. The study was performed in 2012, from May until September. The results were comparable with HBSC results from 2006 in which 64.4% of the adolescents did not achieve the recommended physical activity minimum. The research has shown that adolescents prefer passive ways of spending their free time. Studies which monitor the state of behaviour linked with the health of the youth are carried out both internationally, nationally and locally. Poland achieves poor results in comparison to other countries when it comes to level of physical activity and amount of time spent on passive leisure.Okres dorastania jest bardzo wa偶ny dla m艂odzie偶y, poniewa偶 stabilizuj膮 si臋 wzory zachowa艅 zdrowotnych, kt贸re w utrwalonej formie mog膮 towarzyszy膰 cz艂owiekowi przez ca艂e 偶ycie. Dorastaj膮ca m艂odzie偶 jest najbardziej nara偶on膮 grup膮 spo艂ecze艅stwa na wyst臋powanie zachowa艅 ryzykownych dla zdrowia i niedostatki w zakresie zachowa艅 dla zdrowia korzystnych. Etap edukacji to najlepszy moment na u艣wiadomienie nastolatkom, jak wiele zale偶y od nich samych. M艂odzie偶 w okresie dojrzewania prze偶ywa cz臋sto czas buntu i podejmowania samodzielnych decyzji, ma wp艂yw na samodzielny spos贸b od偶ywiania si臋, sp臋dzania wolnego czasu, higien臋 osobist膮, higien臋 umys艂owa, czy decyduj膮c si臋ganiu po r贸偶nego rodzaju u偶ywki. Niekorzystne dla zdrowia zachowania prowadzi膰 mog膮 do wielu chor贸b somatycznych w tym np. chor贸b uk艂adu sercowo-naczyniowego czy nowotworowych b臋d膮cych najcz臋stszymi przyczynami umieralno艣ci. Kszta艂towanie prozdrowotnych zachowa艅 m艂odzie偶y jest wi臋c niezwykle istotne dla budowania potencja艂u zdrowotnego przysz艂ych pokole艅. Dlatego te偶 realizacja tre艣ci prozdrowotnych ma pom贸c w przekazaniu zasobu wiedzy teoretycznej o zdrowiu, pozwala ukszta艂towa膰 postaw臋 cz艂owieka zainteresowanego w艂asnym zdrowiem i dbaj膮cego o nie

    Rating nurses' knowledge of basic steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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    First aid is provided by the witnesses in this connection it is important to ensure that every citizen of the aid granted in a correct and effective until the arrival of emergency medical team. From witnesses to a large extent depend on the survival chances of the victim or his injury. Education in first aid begins in elementary school, however, important that the students of these classes were able to use the knowledge in practic

    Imaging studies and indications for surgical treatment of carotid spondylosis

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    Spondylosis cervical spine, is the result of a complex process which occurs in the course of normal physiological aging body tissues. This lengthy process progresses normally for decades. It is believed that it is initiated early degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs. Surgical treatment of only a part of the treatment and never correspond to the whole patient's expectations. Alleviates or eliminates direct threat to life or loss of health, not solving the drug problem as a whole. Before planning surgery, are widely used imaging. It is important to remember that radiological signs of wear of the cervical spine, does not always correspond to the clinical manifestations

    Anorexia nervosa - tend the new way of life. Attempt to analyze the current data in this age group

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    At the turn of the last few years, a sharp Increase in the number of people suffering from eating disorders That undoubtedly lead or can lead to the destruction of the body is noticeable. These disorders are very often the cause of irreversible mental and physical changes, sometimes even leading to death in extreme cases. The issue of eating disorders, and in Particular the anorexia nervosa occurring most amazing Affects younger age groups. Early observation of the first symptoms and proper diagnosis gives the Possibility of a full recovery. It should also be borne in mind That These disorders are related both to the prevailing socio-cultural changes, sometimes inefficiencies in support structures, as well as to the current year's threatening Increase in the pace of life. Both specific and non-specific eating disorders belong to the group of diseases Whose aetiology, diagnosis and treatment have not been clearly defined so far. However, it should be taken into account That eating disorders are of a chronic nature, so small That they change the clinical picture during the course of the disease, permeating each other

    Przegl膮d wybranych metod rehabilitacji ko艅czyny g贸rnej u pacjent贸w po przebytym udarze niedokrwiennym m贸zgu = A review of selected methods for the rehabilitation of the upper extremity in patients after undergone brain ischemic stroke

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    Siminska Joanna, Pietkun Katarzyna, Porzych Piotr, G艂owacka聽Iwona, 艢wi膮tkowska Anna, Ogurkowski聽Karol, Grzyb聽Sebastian, Nowacka Krystyna, Beuth Wojciech. Przegl膮d wybranych metod rehabilitacji ko艅czyny g贸rnej u pacjent贸w po przebytym udarze niedokrwiennym m贸zgu = A review of selected methods for the rehabilitation of the upper extremity in patients after undergone brain ischemic stroke. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(4):240-248. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.50155http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3466聽The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015).755 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7漏 The Author (s) 2016;This article is published with open access at Licensee Open Journal Systems of Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, PolandOpen Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,provided the original author(s) and source are credited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non commercialuse, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.Received: 20.03.2016. Revised 17.04.2016. Accepted: 17.04.2016.聽聽PRZEGL膭D WYBRANYCH METOD REHABILITACJI KO艃CZYNY G脫RNEJ U PACJENT脫W PO PRZEBYTYM UDARZE NIEDOKRWIENNYM M脫ZGUA review of selected methods for the rehabilitation of the upper extremity in patients after undergone brain ischemic stroke聽Siminska Joanna1, Pietkun Katarzyna1,2, Porzych Piotr1, G艂owacka聽Iwona1, 艢wi膮tkowska Anna1, Ogurkowski Karol1, Grzyb聽Sebastian3, Nowacka Krystyna1, Beuth Wojciech4聽1Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji CM UMK Bydgoszcz2Katedry Kosmetologii i Dermatologii Estetycznej CM UMK Bydgoszcz3Klinika Neurochirurgii, Neurotraumatologii i Neurochirurgii Dzieci臋cej CM UMK Bydgoszcz4Oddzia艂 Neurochirurgii, Wojew贸dzki Szpital Specjalistyczny, W艂oc艂awek聽S艂owa kluczowe: udar niedokrwienny m贸zgu.Keywords: ischemic stroke.聽聽Streszczenie聽Analizuj膮c dane statystyczne uwa偶a si臋, 偶e udary m贸zgu stanowi膮 oko艂o 15% wszystkich zgon贸w na 艣wiecie. W Polsce na udar m贸zgu zapada oko艂o 70 tysi臋cy os贸b rocznie , spo艣r贸d kt贸rych w okresie pierwszego miesi膮ca umiera oko艂o 20%, kolejne 10-25% pacjent贸w odzyskuje pe艂n膮 samodzielno艣膰, u 40% chorych pozostaje umiarkowana niepe艂nosprawno艣膰, za艣 oko艂o 15-30% 聽os贸b wymaga sta艂ej pomocy os贸b drugich. Dlatego tak niezwykle istotnym faktem staje si臋 wczesne wdr膮偶enie w艂a艣ciwych algorytm贸w post臋powania procedur rehabilitacji. Wiadomo, 偶e optymalnym okresem powrotu i poprawy funkcji, w tym wykonywania czynno艣ci samoobs艂ugowych, s膮 pierwsze 3 miesi膮ce od wyst膮pienia incydentu udaru m贸zgu. W tym okresie nale偶y odpowiednio zaplanowa膰 i zastosowa膰 mo偶liwie najefektywniejsze metody leczenia i usprawniania, co pozwala na popraw臋 jako艣ci 偶ycia jak i podniesienie mo偶liwo艣ci wykonywania czynno艣ci w zakresie samoobs艂ugi tych chorych.聽Abstract聽Analysing statistical data, it is considered that strokes account for approximately 15% of all deaths in the world. In Poland the stroke falls approximately 70 thousand people per year, of which during the first month dies around 20%, 10-25% of patients recover full autonomy in 40% of patients remains a moderate disability, while about 15-30% of people requires constant assistance of another person. Why it is so extremely important fact becomes early implementation of the relevant algorithms conduct rehabilitation procedures. It is known that the optimal period of return and improved features, including self-service operations, are the first 3 months of the occurrence of an incident of stroke. During this period, please plan accordingly and apply as soon as possible the most effective methods of treatment and improve, allowing you to improve the quality of life and raise the possibility of performing self-service operations of these patients

    The use of neurorehabilitation techniques based on the currently used model of therapy in patients with neurological disorders

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    Adherence to the rehabilitation guidelines of the patient brings measurable favorable conditions to achieve the intended effect of returning the patient to health. The present model of rehabilitation of a neurological patient is recommended to be based on the use of rehabilitation methods that prescribe the use of a tool called ICF (International Classification of Functioning), with which we assess its disability and set up a rehabilitation plan. The ICF model assumes that it should follow a prescribed work schedule with the patient, which consists of 3 components: 1) structure 2) activity 3) participation. The whole medical team applies to the assumptions resulting from the above classification because of the improvement of the entire rehabilitation process. The role of the physiotherapist is to inform all nursing staff to make important decisions relevant to the role of the patient's vision, including the correct placement of the patient, which significantly prevents the development of pressure sores and contractures. Rehabilitation is designed to restore the patient's full fitness as quickly as possible and to allow him / her to stand up and, in the future, re-train his or her locomotive skills

    Uncovertebral joints 鈥 their structure, development and relationships with intervertebral discs of cervical spine

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    Uncovertebral joints, also referred to as Luschka鈥檚 joints, are found from the level of second cervical vertebra down to first or second thoracic vertebra. In adults, they appear as regular spaces in annulus fibrosus between the uncinate processes and round edges of vertebral body above. Their development remains in close relationship with changes occurring in intervertebral discs. The joint space, which is formed by the fissure into the fibrocartilaginous core of the intervertebral disc, widens medially at its rear aspect for a various distance. In aged spines, this space extends into additional, smaller lateral fissures, vast and irregular in shape. It is believed that the changes in the uncinate process鈥 structure are the outcome of progressing dehydration and narrowing of the intervertebral discs of cervical spine. This results in remodeling of the process, which begins to expand and flatten with age. According to many authors, uncovertebral joints are small synovial articulations, that aren鈥檛 yet noticeable at age of 6 to 9 and become fully developed before the age of 18.There is some controversy on whether they should be classified as true synovial joints. Some researchers claim that they鈥檙e an outcome of degenerative processes occurring within the intervertebral discs and therefore shouldn鈥檛 be treated as a product of natural development. The presence of synovial tissue within the joints has been a point of some discussions. Recent studies conclusively shown the presence of synoviocytes in the lateral joint capsule tissue of elderly uncovertebral articulations.The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure, development and relationships of uncovertebral joints with intervertebral discs of cervical spine

    Analiza skuteczno艣ci terapeutycznej metody MDT McKenzie zastosowanej w leczeniu zespo艂u zaburze艅 strukturalnych w odcinku szyjnym kr臋gos艂upa u 26-letniego m臋偶czyzny 鈥 opis przypadku = Analysis of therapeutic efficacy of MDT McKenzie method used in the treatment of cervical spine structural disorders in a 26-year-old man - a case report

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    Porzych Piotr, Pyskir Ma艂gorzata, Ratuszek-Sadowska Dorota,聽Dzier偶anowski Maciej, Trela Ewa, Nowacka Krystyna, Hagner鈥慏erengowska Magdalena. Analiza skuteczno艣ci terapeutycznej metody MDT McKenzie zastosowanej w leczeniu zespo艂u zaburze艅 strukturalnych w odcinku szyjnym kr臋gos艂upa u 26-letniego m臋偶czyzny 鈥 opis przypadku = Analysis of therapeutic efficacy of MDT McKenzie method used in the treatment of cervical spine structural disorders in a 26-year-old man - a case report. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):491-504. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.56367http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3637聽The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015).755 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7漏 The Author (s) 2016;This article is published with open access at Licensee Open Journal Systems of Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, PolandOpen Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,provided the original author(s) and source are credited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non commercialuse, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.Received: 05.05.2016. Revised 25.05.2016. Accepted: 16.06.2016.聽Analiza skuteczno艣ci terapeutycznej metody MDT McKenzie zastosowanej w leczeniu zespo艂u zaburze艅 strukturalnych w odcinku szyjnym kr臋gos艂upa u 26-letniego m臋偶czyzny 鈥 opis przypadku聽Analysis of therapeutic efficacy of MDT McKenzie method used in the treatment of cervical spine structural disorders in a 26-year-old man - a case report聽聽Piotr Porzych1, Ma艂gorzata Pyskir1, Dorota Ratuszek-Sadowska1, Maciej聽Dzier偶anowski2, Ewa Trela1, Krystyna Nowacka1, Magdalena聽Hagner鈥慏erengowska3,4聽1.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Miko艂aja Kopernika w Toruniu2.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Katedra Fizjoterapii, Zak艂ad Terapii Manualnej, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Miko艂aja Kopernika w Toruniu3.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Bydgoska Szko艂a Wy偶sza w Bydgoszczy4.聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Katedra Neuropsychologii Klinicznej, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Miko艂aja Kopernika w Toruniu聽聽StreszczenieB贸le wyst臋puj膮ce w obr臋bie szyi s膮 zjawiskiem powszechnym. Wielogodzinne, wymuszone pozycje statyczne zwi膮zane z prac膮 zawodow膮 czy procesem edukacyjnym doprowadzaj膮 do przeci膮偶e艅 kr臋gos艂upa. Konsekwencj膮 przeci膮偶e艅 s膮 zaburzenia funkcji kr臋gos艂upa oraz zmiany strukturalne tkanek wyst臋puj膮cych w jego okolicy. Zmianom tym cz臋sto towarzyszy b贸l.Z艂o偶ona biomechanika kr臋gos艂upa oraz r贸偶norodno艣膰 tkanek funkcjonalnie z nim zwi膮zanych, stanowi istotny problem diagnostyczny. Metoda McKenzie poprzez opracowany model badania oparty na wywiadzie i badaniu przedmiotowym, pozwala wyodr臋bni膰 pacjent贸w o jednorodnym zaburzeniu narz膮du ruchu. Na jego podstawie zdiagnozowa膰 mo偶na mechaniczne 藕r贸d艂o pochodzenia objaw贸w oraz okre艣li膰 struktur臋, kt贸ra je generuje.W pracy opisano przypadek 26-letniego m臋偶czyzny z b贸lem karku i kr臋czem prawostronnym, kt贸ry zosta艂 poddany terapii mechanicznej, poprzedzonej diagnozowaniem mechanicznym, w wyniku kt贸rego stwierdzono wyst膮pienie zespo艂u zaburze艅 strukturalnych.聽S艂owa kluczowe: kr臋cz karku, terapia mechaniczna, MCS Zebris.聽聽AbstractPain occurring in the neck are common phenomenon. Forced, static and lasting many hours positions associated with work or educational process lead to overloading of the spine. Disorders of the spine function and structural changes of adjoining issue are the consequence of overloading. These changes are often 聽associated by pain.The highly complicated spine biomechanics and a variety of functionally related tissues are an important diagnostic problem. McKenzie method allows to specify patients with homogeneous musculoskeletal disorder through elaborated diagnostic procedure based on an interview and physical examination. Mechanical cause of symptoms and聽 structure that generates it can be identify based on it.This paper describes the case of 26-year-old man with neck pain and right torticollis, which has been submited to a mechanical treatment, preceded by a mechanical diagnosis, which concluded the complex of structural disorders.聽Key words: torticollis, mechanical treatment, MCS Zebris

    Hand hygiene for the management of a patient infected with Clostridium difficile in the presence of hospital infections

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    With the dynamic development of medicine nosocomial infections represent a big threat not only for patients admitted to the hospital, but also for health professionals and visitors. Healthcare-associated infections are associated with an extended stay patient, complications in the healing process, and risk of loss of life and health by the patient. Nosocomial infections worldwide are legally governed by the provisions of the legislation of the Member State concerned. The first act regulating the fight against hospital infections in Poland in the institutional way in 2001, introducing "the law on infectious diseases and infections". Micro-organisms causing hospital infections are most often transmitted to the hands of the medical staff. Hygienic hand disinfection is more effective against microorganisms than hand-washing, and should be used as the method of choice before many activities related to patient care. The World Health Organization considers hand hygiene as a basic element of prevention hospital infections. Such pathogens include Clostridium difficile. That is the most important pathogen causing diarrhea.聽 Stem infection of Clostridium difficile may cause serious diseases and medical conditions, particularly in the elderly, debilitated as a result of chronic diseases. The need to respect the principles of hand hygiene by medical staff is widely recognized. Causes of irregularities in the field of hand hygiene are different, for example. the intensity of the work, insufficient medical knowledge, limited access to devices for effective hand hygiene or ignorance of hand disinfection techniques

    Kolumna szyjna kr臋gos艂upa 鈥 ruchomo艣膰 i wybrane sposoby jej pomiaru 鈥 przegl膮d literatury = Cervical vertebral column - mobility and selected ways of measurement - a literature review

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    Porzych Piotr, Ratuszek-Sadowska Dorota, Pyskir Ma艂gorzata, Simi艅ska Joanna, Ogurkowski Karol, Kitschke Ewa. Kolumna szyjna kr臋gos艂upa 鈥 ruchomo艣膰 i wybrane sposoby jej pomiaru 鈥 przegl膮d literatury = Cervical vertebral column - mobility and selected ways of measurement - a literature review. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):505-516. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.56384 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3638 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015). 755 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 漏 The Author (s) 2016; This article is published with open access at Licensee Open Journal Systems of Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Received: 25.05.2016. Revised 25.06.2016. Accepted: 25.06.2016. Kolumna szyjna kr臋gos艂upa 鈥 ruchomo艣膰 i wybrane sposoby jej pomiaru 鈥 przegl膮d literatury Cervical vertebral column - mobility and selected ways of measurement - a literature review Piotr Porzych, Dorota Ratuszek-Sadowska, Ma艂gorzata Pyskir, Joanna Simi艅ska, Karol Ogurkowski, Ewa Kitschke Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, Uniwersytet Miko艂aja Kopernika w Toruniu Streszczenie Kr臋gos艂up szyjny to najbardziej mobilny odcinek ca艂ej kolumny kr臋gowej. Kr臋gi szyjne, tworz膮c szkielet szyi, wspieraj膮 g艂ow臋 umo偶liwiaj膮c jej odpowiedni膮 orientacj臋 w przestrzeni we wszystkich kierunkach. Pomi臋dzy typowym szkieletem osiowym a odmiennie zbudowan膮 czaszk膮 mo偶emy wyr贸偶ni膰 kompleks potyliczno-szczytowo-obrotowy. Dwa najwy偶ej le偶膮ce kr臋gi zosta艂y ukszta艂towane odmiennie umo偶liwiaj膮c g艂owie maksymaln膮 swobod臋 ruch贸w. W dolnej cz臋艣ci kr臋gos艂upa szyjnego wyst臋puj膮 kr臋gi o zbli偶onej budowie, kt贸re funkcjonalnie maj膮 takie same mo偶liwo艣ci, chod藕 si贸dmy kr膮g r贸偶ni si臋 nieco budow膮 anatomiczn膮 od pozosta艂ych. W problematyce zwi膮zanej z badaniem ruchomo艣ci odcinka szyjnego kr臋gos艂upa mo偶na odnie艣膰 si臋 do test贸w klinicznych, maj膮cych charakter oceny subiektywnej oraz bada艅 opartych na obiektywnie zebranych wynikach przy u偶yciu skomputeryzowanych urz膮dze艅 pomiarowych. S艂owa kluczowe: kr臋gos艂up szyjny, anatomia, zakresy ruch贸w, badanie ruchomo艣ci. Abstract The cervical spine is the most mobile section of the entire vertebral column. Cervical vertebrae, construct the neck skeleton, support the head allowing the appropriate orientation in all directions. Between the typical axial skeleton and differently built skull we can distinguish occipito-atlanto-axial complex. The maximum discretion of head movement is possible thanks to two highest lying vertebrae which are dissimilar shaped. In the lower part of the cervical spine are vertebrae with similar construction and functional abilities. The seventh vertebra has slightly different anatomy structure. The issues related to the examination of cervical spine range of motion can be applied to clinical tests which are subjective evaluation and research based on objectively collected results using computerized measurement devices. Key words: cervical spine, anatomy, range of motion, motion measurement
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