455 research outputs found

    Symposium on nutrition and cognition: towards research and application for different life stages. (Congress)

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    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition211104-12

    Investigation of Prolactin Receptor Activation and Blockade Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

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    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is emerging as a therapeutic target in oncology. Knowledge-based drug design led to the development of a pure PRLR antagonist (Del1-9-G129R-hPRL) that was recently shown to prevent PRL-induced mouse prostate tumorogenesis. In humans, the first gain-of-function mutation of the PRLR (PRLRI146L) was recently identified in breast tumor patients. At the molecular level, the actual mechanism of action of these two novel players in the PRL system remains elusive. In this study, we addressed whether constitutive PRLR activation (PRLRI146L) or PRLR blockade (antagonist) involved alteration of receptor oligomerization and/or of inter-chain distances compared to unstimulated and PRL-stimulated PRLR. Using a combination of various biochemical and spectroscopic approaches (co-IP, blue native electrophoresis, BRET1), we demonstrated that preformed PRLR homodimers are altered neither by PRL- or I146L-induced receptor triggering, nor by antagonist-mediated blockade. These findings were confirmed using a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) technology that allows monitoring distance changes between cell surface tagged receptors. This technology revealed that PRLR blockade or activation did not involve detectable distance changes between extracellular domains of receptor chains within the dimer. This study merges with our previous structural investigations suggesting that the mechanism of PRLR activation solely involves intermolecular contact adaptations leading to subtle intramolecular rearrangements

    Evaluation du projet de l’Association Réseau Orientation Santé Social (AROSS)

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    Dans le cadre des travaux de la planification médico-sociale (PMS) du canton de Neuchâtel et afin d’améliorer l’orientation des personnes âgées de plus de 65 ans dans le réseau socio-sanitaire du canton, le rapport « Réseau et entretiens d’orientation » préconisait la création d’un dispositif d’information, d’orientation et de coordination à l’échelle cantonale, portée par un établissement autonome de droit public. La finalité annoncée de ce dispositif est « d’augmenter l’espérance de vie sans incapacité », par la détection et la prise en charge précoce et adaptée des personnes pré-fragiles et fragiles. Avant le déploiement à grande échelle de ce dispositif, l’État a souhaité l’expérimenter sur un territoire du canton. L’Association Réseau Orientation Santé Social (AROSS) a ainsi été créée en mars 2015 afin de promouvoir le développement d’un réseau socio-sanitaire assurant l’information, l’orientation et l’efficience de l’accompagnement des personnes âgées de plus de 65 ans, dans une optique de continuité des soins. Un projet-pilote, sous la forme d’une structure d’information et d’orientation destinée aux personnes âgées, à leurs proches et aux partenaires socio-sanitaires, a été mis en place depuis le 1er janvier 2016 sur les communes du Locle et des Brenets, puis étendu sur l’ensemble du district du Locle au 1er janvier 2017, afin de tester et valider l’approche

    Impact of geocoding methods on associations between long-term exposure to urban air pollution and lung function

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    Background: Errors in address geocodes may affect estimates of the effects of air pollution on health.Objective: We investigated the impact of four geocoding techniques on the association between urban air pollution estimated with a fine-scale (10 m × 10 m) dispersion model and lung function in adults.Methods: We measured forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in 354 adult residents of Grenoble, France, who were participants in two well-characterized studies, the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment on Asthma (EGEA) and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Home addresses were geocoded using individual building matching as the reference approach and three spatial interpolation approaches. We used a dispersion model to estimate mean PM10 and nitrogen dioxide concentrations at each participant's address during the 12 months preceding their lung function measurements. Associations between exposures and lung function parameters were adjusted for individual confounders and same-day exposure to air pollutants. The geocoding techniques were compared with regard to geographical distances between coordinates, exposure estimates, and associations between the estimated exposures and health effects.Results: Median distances between coordinates estimated using the building matching and the three interpolation techniques were 26.4, 27.9, and 35.6 m. Compared with exposure estimates based on building matching, PM10 concentrations based on the three interpolation techniques tended to be overestimated. When building matching was used to estimate exposures, a one-interquartile range increase in PM10 (3.0 μg/m3) was associated with a 3.72-point decrease in FVC% predicted (95% CI: -0.56, -6.88) and a 3.86-point decrease in FEV1% predicted (95% CI: -0.14, -3.24). The magnitude of associations decreased when other geocoding approaches were used [e.g., for FVC% predicted -2.81 (95% CI: -0.26, -5.35) using NavTEQ or 2.08 (95% CI -4.63, 0.47, p = 0.11) using Google Maps].Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the choice of geocoding technique may influence estimated health effects when air pollution exposures are estimated using a fine-scale exposure model.Citation: Jacquemin B, Lepeule J, Boudier A, Arnould C, Benmerad M, Chappaz C, Ferran J, Kauffmann F, Morelli X, Pin I, Pison C, Rios I, Temam S, Künzli N, Slama R, Siroux V. 2013. Impact of geocoding methods on associations between long-term exposure to urban air pollution and lung function. Environ Health Perspect 121:1054-1060; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206016

    Exposure to Phthalates and Phenols during Pregnancy and Offspring Size at Birth

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    Background: Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to phthalates and phenols on fetal growth are limited in humans. Previous findings suggest possible effects of some phenols on male birth weight

    Identification of a new locus at 16q12 associated with time-to-asthma onset

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    International audienceBackground: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which age-of-onset plays an important role.Objective: We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with time-to-asthma onset.Methods: We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies of time-to-asthma onset (total of 5,462 asthmatics with a broad range of age-of-asthma onset and 8,424 controls of European ancestry) performed using survival analysis techniques.Results: We detected five regions associated with time-to-asthma onset at genome-wide significant level (P<5x10-8). We evidenced a new locus in 16q12 region (near cylindromatosis turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD)) and confirmed four asthma risk regions: 2q12 (IL1RL1), 6p21 (HLA-DQA1), 9p24 (IL33) and 17q12-q21 (ZPBP2-GSDMA). Conditional analyses identified two distinct signals at 9p24 (both upstream of IL33) and at 17q12-q21 (near ZPBP2 and within GSDMA). These seven distinct loci explained together 6.0% of the variance in time-to-asthma onset. In addition, we showed that genetic variants at 9p24 and 17q12-q21 were strongly associated with an earlier onset of childhood asthma (P≤0.002) whereas 16q12 SNP was associated with a later asthma onset (P=0.04). A high burden of disease risk alleles at these loci was associated with earlier age-of-asthma onset (4 years versus 9-12 years, P=10-4).Conclusion: The new susceptibility region for time-to-asthma onset at 16q12 harbors variants that correlate with the expression of CYLD and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2), two strong candidates for asthma. This study demonstrates that incorporating the variability of age-of-asthma onset in asthma modeling is a helpful approach in the search for disease susceptibility genes

    Body silhouettes as a tool to reflect obesity in the past

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    Life course data on obesity may enrich the quality of epidemiologic studies analysing health consequences of obesity. However, achieving such data may require substantial resources. We investigated the use of body silhouettes in adults as a tool to reflect obesity in the past. We used large population-based samples to analyse to what extent self-reported body silhouettes correlated with the previously measured (9-23 years) body mass index (BMI) from both measured (European Community Respiratory Health Survey, N = 3 041) and self-reported (Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study, N = 3 410) height and weight. We calculated Spearman correlation between BMI and body silhouettes and ROC-curve analyses for identifying obesity (BMI ≥30) at ages 30 and 45 years. Spearman correlations between measured BMI age 30 (±2y) or 45 (±2y) and body silhouettes in women and men were between 0.62-0.66 and correlations for self-reported BMI were between 0.58-0.70. The area under the curve for identification of obesity at age 30 using body silhouettes vs previously measured BMI at age 30 (±2y) was 0.92 (95% CI 0.87, 0.97) and 0.85 (95% CI 0.75, 0.95) in women and men, respectively; for previously self-reported BMI, 0.92 (95% CI 0.88, 0.95) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.85, 0.96). Our study suggests that body silhouettes are a useful epidemiological tool, enabling retrospective differentiation of obesity and non-obesity in adult women and men

    Evaluation Of Population-Varieties Developed Within A Wheat Participatory Breeding Program In France: Performances, Diversity, Stability And Adaptation

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    Modern agricultural systems rely on little crop genetic diversity, especially with the use of homogeneous varieties grown on large areas. However crop genetic diversity within fields is a lever for a more sustainable production, allowing for a greater stability through combined resistances to biotic and abiotic stress, and buffering environmental heterogeneity which characterizes organic systems. In France, a Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) project has been applied on bread wheat since 2006 involving farmers and facilitators of the farmers' seed network Réseau Semences Paysannes and INRA researchers for the development of populations based on a decentralized selection in farmers' fields. This project leads to the development of heterogeneous populations whose intra-variety genetic diversity should allow them to adapt to farmers' practices and environments. We evaluated the agronomic behavior, genetic diversity, stability and local adaptation of ten populations developed within the PPB program compared to two commercial pure line varieties. Some populations had very interesting responses when considering grain yield, biomass production and protein content, and six of them were not significantly less productive than the two commercial varieties when comparing overall grain yield per population. While no clear evidence of local adaptation was detected, we found that populations' quality and in a lesser extent grain yield were more stable over years than that of commercial varieties. Protein content stability over time was positively correlated to genetic diversity with no significant drawback on protein production

    Prognostic value of the expression of C-Chemokine Receptor 6 and 7 and their ligands in non-metastatic breast cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Chemokines and chemokine receptors are major actors of leukocytes trafficking and some have been shown to play an important role in cancer metastasis. Chemokines CCL19, CCL20 and CCL21 and their receptors CCR6 and CCR7, were assessed as potential biomarkers of metastatic dissemination in primary breast cancer.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Biomarker expression levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of breast cancer (n = 207).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>CCR6 was expressed by tumor cells in 35% of cases. CCR7 was expressed by spindle shaped stromal cells in 43% of cases but not by tumor cells in this series. CCL19 was the only chemokine found expressed in a significant number of breast cancers and was expressed by both tumor cells and dendritic cells (DC). CCR6, CCL19 and CCR7 expression correlated with histologic features of aggressive disease. CCR6 expression was associated with shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) in univariate and but not in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0316 and 0.055 respectively), and was not associated with shorter overall survival (OS). Expression of CCR7 was not significantly associated with shorter RFS or OS. The presence of CCL19-expressing DC was associated with shorter RFS in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.042 and 0.020 respectively) but not with shorter OS.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These results suggest a contribution of CCR6 expression on tumor cells and CCL19-expressing DC in breast cancer dissemination. In our series, unlike what was previously published, CCR7 was exclusively expressed on stromal cells and was not associated with survival.</p
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