677 research outputs found

    Determination of differential cross sections from t¯t fully leptonic, using the matrix element method

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    The purpose of this work is the development of a new analysis technique that allows the determination of differential cross sections with respect to arbitrary kinematic variables. This is illustrated for top quark pairs production where two leptons are present in the final state together with two neutrinos that cannot be detected. By estimating the t¯t invariant mass and the angle between the top quarks in the t¯t rest frame, the sensitivity to the presence of new physics is demonstrated. This technique, based on the matrix element method, makes the optimal use of the experimental information given a set of theoretical hypotheses

    Experimental functional response and inter-individual variation in foraging rate of teal (Anas crecca)

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    The functional response, i.e. the change in per capita food intake rate per time unit with changed food availability, is a widely used tool for understanding the ecology and behaviour of animals. However, waterfowl remain poorly explored in this context. In an aviary experiment we derived a functional response curve for teal (Anascrecca) foraging on rice (Oryzasativa) seeds. We found a linear relationship between intake rate and seed density, as expected for a filter-feeder. At high seed densities we found a threshold, above which intake rate still increased linearly but with a lower slope, possibly reflecting a switch from filter-feeding to a scooping foraging mode. The present study shows that food intake rate in teal is linearly related to food availability within the range of naturally occurring seed densities, a finding with major implications for management and conservation of wetland habitats.</p

    Average mass of seeds encountered by foraging dabbling ducks in Western Europe

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    Many dabbling ducks Anas spp. are largely granivorous, consuming a variety of seeds chiefly from aquatic plants. To assess the relative value and carrying capacity of wetlands for dabbling ducks, species-specific information about seed mass is needed, but it is still largely missing or scattered in the literature. By combining weights of seeds collected in the field with a literature review, we provide a reference table for seed mass of 200 western European plant taxa frequently encountered by foraging dabbling ducks. Seeds collected in the field were sampled in microhabitats and at depths at which ducks were observed to forage, and study sites represent wintering, staging as well as breeding areas within a flyway in western Europe. When combined with calorimetric data, the present reference table will aid managers and scientists in assessing the importance of seed food resources at different sites and during different parts of the annual cycle.</p

    A New Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with a Venus Flytrap Binding Domain in Insects and Other Invertebrates Activated by Aminoacids

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    Background: Tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors that regulate various cellular processes in cell biology of diverse organisms. We previously described an atypical RTK in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, composed of an extracellular Venus flytrap module (VFT) linked through a single transmembrane domain to an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of the insulin receptor. Methods and Findings: Here we show that this receptor is a member of a new family of RTKs found in invertebrates, and particularly in insects. Sixteen new members of this family, named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR), were identified in many insects. Structural and phylogenetic studies performed on VFT and TK domains showed that VKR sequences formed monophyletic groups, the VFT group being close to that of GABA receptors and the TK one being close to that of insulin receptors. We show that a recombinant VKR is able to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues, and report that it can be activated by L-arginine. This is in agreement with the high degree of conservation of the alpha amino acid binding residues found in many amino acid binding VFTs. The presence of high levels of vkr transcripts in larval forms and in female gonads indicates a putative function of VKR in reproduction and/or development. Conclusion: The identification of RTKs specific for parasites and insect vectors raises new perspectives for the control of human parasitic and infectious diseases

    Search for supersymmetry in events with opposite-sign dileptons and missing transverse energy using an artificial neural network

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    In this paper, a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) is presented in events with two opposite-sign isolated leptons in the final state, accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy. An artificial neural network is employed to discriminate possible SUSY signals from a standard model background. The analysis uses a data sample collected with the CMS detector during the 2011 LHC run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98  fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Compared to other CMS analyses, this one uses relaxed criteria on missing transverse energy (E̸T>40  GeV) and total hadronic transverse energy (HT>120  GeV), thus probing different regions of parameter space. Agreement is found between standard model expectation and observations, yielding limits in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and on a set of simplified model

    CMS distributed computing workflow experience

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    The vast majority of the CMS Computing capacity, which is organized in a tiered hierarchy, is located away from CERN. The 7 Tier-1 sites archive the LHC proton-proton collision data that is initially processed at CERN. These sites provide access to all recorded and simulated data for the Tier-2 sites, via wide-area network (WAN) transfers. All central data processing workflows are executed at the Tier-1 level, which contain re-reconstruction and skimming workflows of collision data as well as reprocessing of simulated data to adapt to changing detector conditions. This paper describes the operation of the CMS processing infrastructure at the Tier-1 level. The Tier-1 workflows are described in detail. The operational optimization of resource usage is described. In particular, the variation of different workflows during the data taking period of 2010, their efficiencies and latencies as well as their impact on the delivery of physics results is discussed and lessons are drawn from this experience. The simulation of proton-proton collisions for the CMS experiment is primarily carried out at the second tier of the CMS computing infrastructure. Half of the Tier-2 sites of CMS are reserved for central Monte Carlo (MC) production while the other half is available for user analysis. This paper summarizes the large throughput of the MC production operation during the data taking period of 2010 and discusses the latencies and efficiencies of the various types of MC production workflows. We present the operational procedures to optimize the usage of available resources and we the operational model of CMS for including opportunistic resources, such as the larger Tier-3 sites, into the central production operation

    Transpressional tectonics and Carboniferous magmatism in the Limousin, Massif Central, France: Structural and <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar investigations

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    New structural, microstructural, and 40Ar/39 Ar data from the NW Massif Central (France) provide additional constraints on the timing and tectonic setting of late Variscan granite magmatism. Previous studies had emphasized the role of late orogenic extension in the emplacement of granite plutons in the Limousin region. In contrast, the new data set is consistent with syntectonic emplacement of magma in a dextral simple shear active from 350 to 300 Ma in a transpressional regime. As an alternative hypothesis to late orogenic extension, we propose that magmas migrated into tensional bridges between active P shears associated with a lithospheric shear zone comparable to a pop-up structure. The Galician region, in the western end of the Ibero-Armorican tectonic arc, exhibits major left-lateral ductile shear zones which can be interpreted as conjugate structures to the Limousin and Armorican shear zones. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union
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