467 research outputs found

    Pop III i-process nucleosynthesis and the elemental abundances of SMSS J0313-6708 and the most iron-poor stars

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    © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We have investigated a highly energetic H-ingestion event during shell He burning leading to H-burning luminosities of log (L H /L ⊙ ) ~ 13 in a 45M⊙ Pop III massive stellar model. In order to track the nucleosynthesis which may occur in such an event, we run a series of single-zone nucleosynthesis models for typical conditions found in the stellar evolution model. Such nucleosynthesis conditions may lead to i-process neutron densities of up to ~10 13 cm -3 . The resulting simulation abundance pattern, where Mg comes from He burning and Ca from the i process, agrees with the general observed pattern of the most iron-poor star currently known, SMSS J031300.36-670839.3. However, Na is also efficiently produced in these i-process conditions, and the prediction exceeds observations by ~2.5 dex. While this probably rules out this model for SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, the typical i-process signature of combined He burning and i process of higher than solar [Na/Mg] , [Mg/Al], and low [Ca/Mg] is reproducing abundance features of the two next most iron-poor stars HE 1017-5240 and HE 1327-2326 very well. The i process does not reach Fe which would have to come from a low level of additional enrichment. i process in hyper-metal-poor or Pop III massive stars may be able to explain certain abundance patterns observed in some of the most metal-poor CEMP-no stars

    The s process in massive stars at low metallicity. Effect of primary N14 from fast rotating stars

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    The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of a primary neutron source on the s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars at halo metallicity. Recent stellar models including rotation at very low metallicity predict a strong production of primary N14. Part of the nitrogen produced in the H-burning shell diffuses by rotational mixing into the He core where it is converted to Ne22 providing additional neutrons for the s process. We present nucleosynthesis calculations for a 25 Msun star at [Fe/H] = -3, -4, where in the convective core He-burning about 0.8 % in mass is made of primary Ne22. The usual weak s-process shape is changed by the additional neutron source with a peak between Sr and Ba, where the s-process yields increase by orders of magnitude with respect to the yields obtained without rotation. Iron seeds are fully consumed and the maximum production of Sr, Y and Zr is reached. On the other hand, the s-process efficiency beyond Sr and the ratio Sr/Ba are strongly affected by the amount of Ne22 and by nuclear uncertainties, first of all by the Ne22(alpha,n)Mg25 reaction. Finally, assuming that Ne22 is primary in the considered metallicity range, the s-process efficiency decreases with metallicity due to the effect of the major neutron poisons Mg25 and Ne22. This work represents a first step towards the study of primary neutron source effect in fast rotating massive stars, and its implications are discussed in the light of spectroscopic observations of heavy elements at halo metallicity.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letters, 11 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl

    Mn abundances in the stars of the Galactic disc with metallicities -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3

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    In this work we present and discuss the observations of the Mn abundances for 247 FGK dwarfs, located in the Galactic disc with metallicity -1 < [Fe/H]< +0.3. The observed stars belong to the substructures of the Galaxy thick and thin discs, and to the Hercules stream. The observations were conducted using the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) equipped with the echelle type spectrographs ELODIE and SOPHIE. The abundances were derived under the LTE approximation, with an average error for the [Mn/Fe] ratio of 0.10 dex. For most of the stars in the sample Mn abundances are not available in the literature. We obtain an evolution of [Mn/Fe] ratio with the metallicity [Fe/H] consistent with previous data compilations. In particular, within the metallicity range covered by our stellar sample the [Mn/Fe] ratio is increasing with the increase of metallicity. This due to the contribution to the Galactic chemical evolution of Mn and Fe from thermonuclear supernovae. We confirm the baseline scenario where most of the Mn in the Galactic disc and in the Sun is made by thermonuclear supernovae. In particular, the effective contribution from core-collapse supernovae to the Mn in the Solar system is about 10-20%. However, present uncertainties affecting the production of Mn and Fe in thermonuclear supernovae are limiting the constraining power of the observed [Mn/Fe] trend in the Galactic discs on, e.g., the frequency of different thermonuclear supernovae populations. The different production of these two elements in different types of thermonuclear supernovae needs to be disentangled by the dependence of their relative production on the metallicity of the supernova progenitor

    Stellar neutron capture cross sections of ⁴¹K and ⁴⁵Sc

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    The neutron capture cross sections of light nuclei (

    H ingestion into He-burning convection zones in super-AGB stellar models as a potential site for intermediate neutron-density nucleosynthesis

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    We investigate the evolution of super-AGB (SAGB) thermal pulse (TP) stars for a range of metallicities (Z) and explore the effect of convective boundary mixing (CBM). With decreasing metallicity and evolution along the TP phase, the He-shell flash and the third dredge-up (TDU) occur closer together in time. After some time (depending upon the CBM parametrization), efficient TDU begins while the pulse-driven convection zone (PDCZ) is still present, causing a convective exchange of material between the PDCZ and the convective envelope. This results in the ingestion of protons into the convective He-burning pulse. Even small amounts of CBM encourage the interaction of the convection zones leading to transport of protons from the convective envelope into the He layer. H-burning luminosities exceed 10⁹ (in some cases 10¹⁰) L⊙. We also calculate models of dredge-out in the most massive SAGB stars and show that the dredge-out phenomenon is another likely site of convective-reactive H-¹²C combustion. We discuss the substantial uncertainties of stellar evolution models under these conditions. Nevertheless, the simulations suggest that in the convective-reactive H-combustion regime of H ingestion the star may encounter conditions for the intermediate neutron capture process (i-process). We speculate that some CEMP-s/r stars could originate in i-process conditions in the H ingestion phases of low-Z SAGB stars. This scenario would however suggest a very low electron-capture supernova rate from SAGB stars. We also simulate potential outbursts triggered by such H ingestion events, present their light curves and briefly discuss their transient properties

    Stellar origin of 15N-rich presolar SiC grains of type AB: Supernovae with explosive hydrogen burning

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    © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We report C, N, and Si isotopic data for 59 highly 13 C-enriched presolar submicron-to micron-sized SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite, including eight putative nova grains (PNGs) and 29 15 N-rich ( 14 N/ 15 N ≤ solar) AB grains, and their Mg-Al, S, and Ca-Ti isotope data when available. These 37 grains are enriched in 13 C, 15 N, and 26 Al with the PNGs showing more extreme enhancements. The 15 N-rich AB grains show systematically higher 26 Al and 30 Si excesses than the 14 N-rich AB grains. Thus, we propose to divide the AB grains into groups 1 ( 14 N/ 15 N < solar) and 2 ( 14 N/ 15 N ≥ solar). For the first time, we have obtained both S and Ti isotopic data for five AB1 grains and one PNG and found 32 S and/or 50 Ti enhancements. Interestingly, one AB1 grain had the largest 32 S and 50 Ti excesses, strongly suggesting a neutron-capture nucleosynthetic origin of the 32 S excess and thus the initial presence of radiogenic 32 Si (t 1/2 = 153 years). More importantly, we found that the 15 N and 26 Al excesses of AB1 grains form a trend that extends to the region in the N-Al isotope plot occupied by C2 grains, strongly indicating a common stellar origin for both AB1 and C2 grains. Comparison of supernova models with the AB1 and C2 grain data indicates that these grains came from supernovae that experienced H ingestion into the He/C zones of their progenitors

    Stellar (n,γ) cross sections of ²³Na

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    The cross section of the ²³Na(n,γ)²⁴Na reaction has been measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at kT = 5.1 and 25 keV produced via the ¹⁸O(p,n)¹⁸F and ⁷Li(p,n)⁷Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections (σ)kT=5keV = 9.1 ± 0.3mb and (σ)kT=25keV = 2.03 ± 0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first ²³Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s-process nucleosynthesis are discussed

    Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of r-process Elements in the Galactic Halo

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    For the production of r-process elements in our Galaxy, multiple sites have been discussed, among others, core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers. We use the observed elemental abundances of europium (Eu) in metal poor stars to reproduce the galactic chemical evolution of r-process elements. Our main findings are that additionally to neutron star mergers, a second, early acting site is necessary. We assume “magnetorotationally driven supernovae” act as this additional and earlier r-process site and conclude that our simulations with an adequate combination of these two sites successfully reproduces the observed r-process elemental abundances in the Galactic halo

    Convective–reactive nucleosynthesis of K, Sc, Cl and p-process isotopes in O–C shell mergers

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    © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We address the deficiency of odd-Z elements P, Cl, K and Sc in Galactic chemical evolution models through an investigation of the nucleosynthesis of interacting convective O and C shells in massive stars. 3D hydrodynamic simulations of O-shell convection with moderate C-ingestion rates show no dramatic deviation from spherical symmetry. We derive a spherically averaged diffusion coefficient for 1D nucleosynthesis simulations, which show that such convective-reactive ingestion events can be a production site for P, Cl, K and Sc. An entrainment rate of 10-3M⊙s-1features overproduction factors OPs≈ 7. Full O-C shell mergers in our 1D stellar evolution massive star models have overproduction factors OPm> 1 dex but for such cases 3D hydrodynamic simulations suggest deviations from spherical symmetry. γ - process species can be produced with overproduction factors of OPm> 1 dex, for example, for130, 132Ba. Using the uncertain prediction of the 15M⊙, Z = 0.02 massive star model (OPm≈ 15) as representative for merger or entrainment convective-reactive events involving O- and C-burning shells, and assume that such events occur in more than 50 per cent of all stars, our chemical evolution models reproduce the observed Galactic trends of the odd-Z elements