562 research outputs found

    GMRT Observations of NGC 3079

    Full text link
    We present new observations at three frequencies (326 MHz, 615 MHz, and 1281 MHz) of the radio lobe spiral galaxy, NGC 3079, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations are consistent with previous data obtained at other telescopes and reveal the structure of the nuclear radio lobes in exquisite detail. In addition, new features are observed, some with HI counterparts, showing broad scale radio continuum emission and extensions. The galaxy is surrounded by a radio halo that is at least 4.8 kpc in height. Two giant radio extensions/loops are seen on either side of the galaxy out to ∌\sim 11 kpc from the major axis, only slightly offset from the direction of the smaller nuclear radio lobes. If these are associated with the nuclear outflow, then the galaxy has experienced episodic nuclear activity. Emission along the southern major axis suggests motion through a local IGM (not yet detected) and it may be that NGC 3079 is itself creating this local intergalactic gas via outflows. We also present maps of the minimum energy parameters for this galaxy, including cosmic ray energy density, electron diffusion length, magnetic field strength, particle lifetime, and power.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figures, 4 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Allometry of fine roots in forest ecosystems

    Get PDF
    We thank Chensen Xu for drawing Figure 1. This synthesis benefits directly from different sources of dataset, including the forest flux database (Luyssaert et al. 2007), BAAD (Falster et al. 2015), ForC‐db (https://github.com/forc-db), dataset of Malhi et al. (2011) and Litton et al. (2007). We are grateful to all these authors, site investigators and their funding agencies contributing to these dataset. We thank the various regional flux networks (Afriflux, AmeriFlux, AsiaFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEurope‐IP, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet‐Canada, KoFlux, LBA, NECC, OzFlux, TCOS‐Siberia, USCCC), and the Fluxnet project, for support in obtaining these measurements. We also thank two reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31422012 and 31830014).Peer reviewedPostprin

    ATRT–SHH comprises three molecular subgroups with characteristic clinical and histopathological features and prognostic significance

    Get PDF
    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is an aggressive central nervous system tumor characterized by loss of SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression and comprises three distinct molecular groups, ATRT–TYR, ATRT–MYC and ATRT–SHH. ATRT–SHH represents the largest molecular group and is heterogeneous with regard to age, tumor location and epigenetic profile. We, therefore, aimed to investigate if heterogeneity within ATRT–SHH might also have biological and clinical importance. Consensus clustering of DNA methylation profiles and confirmatory t-SNE analysis of 65 ATRT–SHH yielded three robust molecular subgroups, i.e., SHH-1A, SHH-1B and SHH-2. These subgroups differed by median age of onset (SHH-1A: 18 months, SHH-1B: 107 months, SHH-2: 13 months) and tumor location (SHH-1A: 88% supratentorial; SHH-1B: 85% supratentorial; SHH-2: 93% infratentorial, often extending to the pineal region). Subgroups showed comparable SMARCB1 mutational profiles, but pathogenic/likely pathogenic SMARCB1 germline variants were over-represented in SHH-2 (63%) as compared to SHH-1A (20%) and SHH-1B (0%). Protein expression of proneural marker ASCL1 (enriched in SHH-1B) and glial markers OLIG2 and GFAP (absent in SHH-2) as well as global mRNA expression patterns differed, but all subgroups were characterized by overexpression of SHH as well as Notch pathway members. In a Drosophila model, knockdown of Snr1 (the fly homologue of SMARCB1) in hedgehog activated cells not only altered hedgehog signaling, but also caused aberrant Notch signaling and formation of tumor-like structures. Finally, on survival analysis, molecular subgroup and age of onset (but not ASCL1 staining status) were independently associated with overall survival, older patients (> 3 years) harboring SHH-1B experiencing relatively favorable outcome. In conclusion, ATRT–SHH comprises three subgroups characterized by SHH and Notch pathway activation, but divergent molecular and clinical features. Our data suggest that molecular subgrouping of ATRT–SHH has prognostic relevance and might aid to stratify patients within future clinical trials. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00401-022-02424-5

    Spectral energy distribution and radio halo of NGC253 at low radio frequencies

    Get PDF
    A. D. Kapinska, 'Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies', The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 838(68), 15 pp, March 2017. The version of record is available online at doi: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa5f5d. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.We present new radio continuum observations of NGC253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modelled as an internally free-free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the NGC253 spectrum is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the SE halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock re-accelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cut off of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC253 in our radio images. At 154 - 231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ~8kpc in z-direction (from major axis).Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

    Get PDF
    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation