99 research outputs found

    JP3D compression of solar data-cubes: photospheric imaging and spectropolarimetry

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    Hyperspectral imaging is an ubiquitous technique in solar physics observations and the recent advances in solar instrumentation enabled us to acquire and record data at an unprecedented rate. The huge amount of data which will be archived in the upcoming solar observatories press us to compress the data in order to reduce the storage space and transfer times. The correlation present over all dimensions, spatial, temporal and spectral, of solar data-sets suggests the use of a 3D base wavelet decomposition, to achieve higher compression rates. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the recent JPEG2000 Part 10 standard, known as JP3D, for the lossless compression of several types of solar data-cubes. We explore the differences in: a) The compressibility of broad-band or narrow-band time-sequence; I or V stokes profiles in spectropolarimetric data-sets; b) Compressing data in [x,y,λ\lambda] packages at different times or data in [x,y,t] packages of different wavelength; c) Compressing a single large data-cube or several smaller data-cubes; d) Compressing data which is under-sampled or super-sampled with respect to the diffraction cut-off

    A Probabilistic Approach to the Drag-Based Model

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    The forecast of the time of arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) to Earth is of critical importance for our high-technology society and for any future manned exploration of the Solar System. As critical as the forecast accuracy is the knowledge of its precision, i.e. the error associated to the estimate. We propose a statistical approach for the computation of the time of arrival using the drag-based model by introducing the probability distributions, rather than exact values, as input parameters, thus allowing the evaluation of the uncertainty on the forecast. We test this approach using a set of CMEs whose transit times are known, and obtain extremely promising results: the average value of the absolute differences between measure and forecast is 9.1h, and half of these residuals are within the estimated errors. These results suggest that this approach deserves further investigation. We are working to realize a real-time implementation which ingests the outputs of automated CME tracking algorithms as inputs to create a database of events useful for a further validation of the approach.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure

    Sterile neutrinos: the necessity for a 5 sigma definitive clarification

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    Several different experiments have hinted to the existence of "anomalies" in the neutrino sector, implying the possible presence of additional sterile neutrinos or of other options. A definitive experimental search, capable to clarify either in favour or against all these anomalies at the appropriate > 5 sigma level has been proposed by the ICARUS-NESSIE Collaboration. The technique is based on two innovative concepts, namely (1) a large mass Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) now in full operation at LNGS and (2) the search for spectral differences in two identical detectors at different distances along the (anti-)neutrino line(s).Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, 1 tabl

    TRANSLATE -- A Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in Liquid Argon

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    The microphysics of electron and photon propagation in liquid argon is a key component of detector design and calibrations needed to construct and perform measurements within a wide range of particle physics experiments. As experiments grow in scale and complexity, and as the precision of their intended measurements increases, the development of tools to investigate important microphysics effects impacting such detectors becomes necessary. In this paper we present a new time-domain Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in liquid argon. The simulation models the TRANSport in Liquid Argon of near-Thermal Electrons (TRANSLATE) with the aim of providing a multi-purpose software package for the study and optimization of detector environments, with a particular focus on ongoing and next generation liquid argon neutrino experiments utilizing the time projection chamber technology. TRANSLATE builds on previous work of Wojcik and Tachiya, amongst others, introducing additional cross-section processes up to ionization, thus modeling the full range of drift electron scattering interactions. The simulation is validated by benchmarking its performance with swarm parameters from data collected in experimental setups operating in gas and liquid.Comment: 17 pages, 12 figure

    Neurotrophic Activity and Its Modulation by Zinc Ion of a Dimeric Peptide Mimicking the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor N-Terminal Region

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    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin (NT) essential for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of BDNF signaling is implicated in different neurological disorders. The direct NT administration as therapeutics has revealed to be challenging. This has prompted the design of peptides mimicking different regions of the BDNF structure. Although loops 2 and 4 have been thoroughly investigated, less is known regarding the BDNF N-terminal region, which is involved in the selective recognition of the TrkB receptor. Herein, a dimeric form of the linear peptide encompassing the 1-12 residues of the BDNF N-terminal (d-bdnf) was synthesized. It demonstrated to act as an agonist promoting specific phosphorylation of TrkB and downstream ERK and AKT effectors. The ability to promote TrkB dimerization was investigated by advanced fluorescence microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, finding activation modes shared with BDNF. Furthermore, d-bdnf was able to sustain neurite outgrowth and increase the expression of differentiation (NEFM, LAMC1) and polarization markers (MAP2, MAPT) demonstrating its neurotrophic activity. As TrkB activity is affected by zinc ions in the synaptic cleft, we first verified the ability of d-bdnf to coordinate zinc and then the effect of such complexation on its activity. The d-bdnf neurotrophic activity was reduced by zinc complexation, demonstrating the role of the latter in tuning the activity of the new peptido-mimetic. Taken together our data uncover the neurotrophic properties of a novel BDNF mimetic peptide and pave the way for future studies to understand the pharmacological basis of d-bdnf action and develop novel BDNF-based therapeutic strategies
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