5,613 research outputs found

    The Quickest, Lowest-cost Lunar Resource Assessment Program: Integrated High-tech Earth-based Astronomy

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    Science and technology applications for the Moon have not fully kept pace with technical advancements in sensor development and analytical information extraction capabilities. Appropriate unanswered questions for the Moon abound, but until recently there has been little motivation to link sophisticated technical capabilities with specific measurement and analysis projects. Over the last decade enormous technical progress has been made in the development of (1) CCD photometric array detectors; (2) visible to near-infrared imaging spectrometers; (3)infrared spectroscopy; (4) high-resolution dual-polarization radar imaging at 3.5, 12, and 70 cm; and equally important (5) data analysis and information extraction techniques using compact powerful computers. Parts of each of these have been tested separately, but there has been no programmatic effort to develop and optimize instruments to meet lunar science and resource assessment needs (e.g., specific wavelength range, resolution, etc.) nor to coordinate activities so that the symbiotic relation between different kinds of data can be fully realized. No single type of remotely acquired data completely characterizes the lunar environment, but there has been little opportunity for integration of diverse advanced sensor data for the Moon. Two examples of technology concepts for lunar measurements are given. Using VIS/near-IR spectroscopy, the mineral composition of surface material can be derived from visible and near-infrared radiation reflected from the surface. The surface and subsurface scattering properties of the Moon can be analyzed using radar backscattering imaging

    Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

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    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters

    The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution

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    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons

    Practice schedule and cognitive style interaction in learning a maze task

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    In the present study the effects of contextual interference on the retention and transfer performance of reflectives and impulsives on a maze task were studied. Forty-seven subjects were randomly assigned to either a high contextual interference group or to a low contextual interference group. Within the two groups subjects were further classified according to their preferred modes of responding. Retention and transfer were measured immediately following practice and after a 4-week delay. The dependent variables were tracing time and errors. Reflectives made fewer errors and moved more quickly after practising under conditions of high contextual interference. Impulsives tended to have fewer errors after practising under conditions of high contextual interference but moved more slowly. Based on these results it was suggested that trainers consider individual differences in reflectivity-impulsivity before designing particular practice schedules

    Spectroscopy of Moses Rock Kimberlite Diatreme

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    Three types of remote sensing data (Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy (AIS), NS001, Zeiss IR-photographs) were obtained for the Moses Rock kimberlite dike in southern Utah. The goal is to identify and characterize the mantle derived mafic component in such volcanic features. The Zeiss and NS001 images provide information on the regional setting and allow units of the dike to be distinguished from surrounding material. A potential unmapped satellite dike was identified. The AIS data provide characterizing information of the surface composition of the dike. Serpentized olivine-bearing soils are (tentatively) identified from the AIS spectra for a few areas within the dike

    Statically checking confidentiality via dynamic labels

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    This paper presents a new approach for verifying confidentiality for programs, based on abstract interpretation. The framework is formally developed and proved correct in the theorem prover PVS. We use dynamic labeling functions to abstractly interpret a simple programming language via modification of security levels of variables. Our approach is sound and compositional and results in an algorithm for statically checking confidentiality
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