1,663 research outputs found

    The strong coupling constant from lattice QCD with N_f=2 dynamical quarks

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    We compute ΛMSˉ\Lambda_{\bar{MS}} for two flavors of light dynamical quarks using non-perturbatively O(a)O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We improve on a recent calculation by employing Pad\'e-improved two-loop and three-loop perturbation theory to convert the lattice numbers to the MSˉ\bar{MS} scheme.Comment: Contribution to Lattice 2001 (matrix elements), typo correcte

    Feasibility of utilizing the 200-inch Hale telescope as a deep-space optical receiver

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    Capturing the very faint optical communications signals expected from the Mars Laser Communication Demonstration (MLCD) experiment to fly aboard the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) in 2009 requires a sensitive receiver placed at the focus of a large collecting aperture. For the purpose of demonstrating the potential of deep-space optical communication, it makes sense to employ a large astronomical telescope as a temporary receiver. Because of its large collecting aperture, its reputation as a well-run instrument, and its relative convenience, the 200-inch Hale Telescope on Palomar Mountain is being considered as a demonstration optical 'antenna' for the experiment. However, use of the telescope in this manner presents unique challenges to be overcome, the greatest of which is pointing the telescope and maintaining the communication link to within a few degrees of the Sun. This paper presents our candidate approaches for adapting the Hale telescope to meet the demonstration requirements, modifications to the facilities and infrastructure, the derivation of requirements for baffles and filters to meet the near-Sun pointing objectives, and initial data on the potential of candidate modifications to meet the requirements

    Fermion zero modes in N=2 supervortices

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    We study the fermionic zero modes of BPS semilocal magnetic vortices in N=2 supersymmetric QED with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term and two matter hypermultiplets of opposite charge. There is a one-parameter family of vortices with arbitrarily wide magnetic cores. Contrary to the situation in pure Nielsen-Olesen vortices, new zero modes are found which get their masses from Yukawa couplings to scalar fields that do not wind and are non-zero at the core. We clarify the relation between fermion mass and zero modes. The new zero modes have opposite chiralities and therefore do not affect the net counting (left minus right) of zero modes coming from index theorems but manage to evade other index theorems in the literature that count the total number (left plus right) of zero modes in simpler systems.Comment: 9 pages, 1 figure. Uses Revtex4. Revised version includes discussion about the back-reaction of the fermions on the background vortex. Version to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Light hadron spectroscopy with O(a) improved dynamical fermions

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    We present the first results for the static quark potential and the light hadron spectrum using dynamical fermions at β=5.2\beta=5.2 using an O(a) improved Wilson fermion action together with the standard Wilson plaquette action for the gauge part. Sea quark masses were chosen such that the pseudoscalar-vector mass ratio, m_PS/m_V$, varies from 0.86 to 0.67. Finite-size effects are studied by using three different volumes, 8^3\cdot 24, 12^3\cdot 24 and 16^3\cdot 24. Comparing our results to previous ones obtained using the quenched approximation, we find evidence for sea quark effects in quantities like the static quark potential and the vector-pseudoscalar hyperfine splitting.Comment: 38 pages, 14 Postscript figure, LaTe

    Francisella tularensis Replicates within Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells In Vitro and In Vivo following Inhalation

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    Francisella tularensis replicates in macrophages and dendritic cells, but interactions with other cell types have not been well described. F. tularensis LVS invaded and replicated within alveolar epithelial cell lines. Following intranasal inoculation of C57BL/6 mice, Francisella localized to the alveolus and replicated within alveolar type II epithelial cells

    Pre-main sequence stars in the Lagoon Nebula (M8)

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    We report the discovery of new pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Lagoon Nebula (M8) at a distance of 1.25 kpc, based on intermediate resolution spectra obtained with the Boller & Chivens spectrograph at the 6.5-m Magellan I telescope (Las Campanas Observatory, Chile). According to the spectral types, the presence of emission lines and the lithium 6708A absorption line, we are able to identify 27 classical T Tauri stars, 7 weak-lined T Tauri stars and 3 PMS emission objects with spectral type G, which we include in a separated stellar class denominated "PMS Fe/Ge class". Using near-infrared photometry either from 2MASS or from our own previous work we derive effective temperatures and luminosities for these stars and locate them in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, in order to estimate their masses and ages. We find that almost all of our sample stars are younger than 3 10^6 years and span over a range of masses between 0.8 and 2.5 Msun. A cross-correlation between our spectroscopic data and the X-ray sources detected with the Chandra ACIS instrument is also presented.Comment: 18 pages, 15 figures, MNRAS, in pres

    On the Origins of Starburst and Post-Starburst Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

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    HST WFPC2 images in B (F450W) and I (F814W) have been obtained for three starburst (SB) and two post-starburst (PSB) galaxies in the Coma cluster, and for three such galaxies in the cluster DC2048-52. V (F555W) and I images for an additional PSB galaxy in Coma have been extracted from the archive. Seven of these galaxies were previously classified as E/S0 on the basis of ground-based images, one as Sa, and the other as an irregular. The HST images reveal these SB/PSB galaxies to be heterogeneous in morphology. Nevertheless a common theme is that many of them, especially the SB galaxies, tend to have centralized spiral structure that appears simply as a bright ``bulge''on ground-based images. In addition, while some PSB galaxies exhibit distinct spiral structure, on the whole they have smoother morphologies than the SB galaxies. The morphologies and luminosity profiles are generally consistent with substantial starbursts in the form of centralized spiral structure (the SB galaxies) which fade into smoother morphologies (the PSB galaxies), with lingering spectroscopic evidence for past central starbursts. An important point is that the PSB galaxies retain disks, i.e, they have not evolved into spheroidal systems.Comment: 32 pages, 10 figures including 3 jpg images. To appear in the January 1999 Astronomical Journa

    Multi-wavelength study of XMMU J2235.3-2557: the most massive galaxy cluster at z > 1

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    [Abridged] XMMU J2235.3-2557 is one of the most distant X-ray selected clusters, spectroscopically confirmed at z=1.39. We characterize the galaxy populations of passive members, the thermodynamical properties of the hot gas, its metal abundance and the total mass of the system using imaging data with HST/ACS (i775 and z850 bands) and VLT/ISAAC (J and K_s bands), extensive spectroscopic data obtained with VLT/FORS2, and deep Chandra observations. Out of a total sample of 34 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, we selected 16 passive galaxies within the central 2' (or 1 Mpc) with ACS coverage, and inferred star formation histories for a sub-sample of galaxies inside and outside the core by modeling their spectro-photometric data with spectral synthesis models, finding a strong mean age radial gradient. Chandra data show a regular elongated morphology, closely resembling the distribution of core galaxies, with a significant cool core. We measure a global X-ray temperature of kT=8.6(-1.2,+1.3) keV (68% c.l.). By detecting the rest-frame 6.7 keV Iron K line, we measure a metallicty Z= 0.26(+0.20,-0.16) Zsun. In the likely hypothesis of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain a total mass of Mtot(<1 Mpc)=(5.9+-1.3)10^14 Msun. Overall, our analysis implies that XMM2235 is the hottest and most massive bona-fide cluster discovered to date at z>1, with a baryonic content, both its galaxy population and intra-cluster gas, in a significantly advanced evolutionary stage at 1/3 of the current age of the Universe.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in A&A (v2: typos/language style corrections, updated references
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