2,417 research outputs found

    A First Principles Theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance J-Coupling in solid-state systems

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    A method to calculate NMR J-coupling constants from first principles in extended systems is presented. It is based on density functional theory and is formulated within a planewave-pseudopotential framework. The all-electron properties are recovered using the projector augmented wave approach. The method is validated by comparison with existing quantum chemical calculations of solution-state systems and with experimental data. The approach has been applied to verify measured J-coupling in a silicophosphate structure, Si5O(PO4)6Comment: 9 page

    Low attentional engagement makes attention network activity susceptible to emotional interference

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    The aim of this study was to investigate whether emotion-attention interaction depends on attentional engagement. To investigate emotional modulation of attention network activation, we used a functional MRI paradigm consisting of a visuospatial attention task with either frequent (high-engagement) or infrequent (low-engagement) targets and intermittent emotional or neutral distractors. The attention task recruited a bilateral frontoparietal network with no emotional interference on network activation when the attentional engagement was high. In contrast, when the attentional engagement was low, the unpleasant stimuli interfered with the activation of the frontoparietal attention network, especially in the right hemisphere. This study provides novel evidence for low attentional engagement making attention control network activation susceptible to emotional interference. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Fil: Exposito, Veronica. Fundación para la Lucha contra las Enfermedades Neurológicas de la Infancia; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad de Tampere; FinlandiaFil: Pickard, Natasha. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Solbakk, Anne-Kristin. University of Oslo; NoruegaFil: Ogawa, Keith H.. Saint Mary's College Of California; Estados UnidosFil: Knight, Robert T.. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Hartikainen, Kaisa M.. Universidad de Tampere; Finlandi

    Explaining fiscal decentralization and the role of ethnic diversity

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    This paper considers the causes of fiscal decentralization with a specific focus on the role of ethnic diversity. To do so, I employ an instrument for ethnic diversity based on the origin of anatomically modern human life. Using two measures of decentralization that capture decision making autonomy and accounting for the depth of divisions between ethno-linguistic groups using the structure of language trees, I find that ethnic diversity has a positive effect on the degree of decentralization. It is the amount of fractionalization towards the leaves of the trees, where groups are more numerous and less distinct, that drive decentralization

    A mailshot in the dark? The impact of the UK government's leaflet on the 2016 EU referendum

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    In this paper I explore the causal effect of exposure to the UK government’s mailshot on vote preference in the 2016 EU referendum. I find that exposure caused a drop in the probability of voting leave by 3 percentage points. The effect was stronger in individuals who were exposed to few other sources of referendum information. For instance, females and the risk averse were even less likely to vote leave after exposure. The effect was also larger for Conservative party supporters who consumed many other sources of information. The evidence is consistent with voters being liable to persuasion. On the mechanism, I show that exposed individuals experienced a “persuasion-through-knowledge” effect, which changed beliefs on topics of contention

    Does Congressional experience in US governors influence state transfers?

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    This paper examines the relationship between US governors who have previously served as a member of Congress and the federal transfers to their state. I assemble a novel dataset of governors political background and match this to federal transfer data from 1950 to 2008. Governors with Congressional experience have 0.8 percentage points more transfers to their state. I find no evidence of problematic trends or selection issues. Moreover, the result is robust to outliers in the data and many robustness checks

    A natural carbohydrate fraction Actigen™ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall: effects on goblet cells, gut morphology and performance of broiler chickens

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    A study was conducted to evaluate a natural carbohydrate fraction Actigen™ (NCF), derived from mannanoligosaccharide, in feed on growth performance, intestinal morphology and goblet cell number and area of male broilers'. Dietary treatments included: 1) control diet (antibiotic and NCF free), 2) NCF at 200g/t, 3) NCF at 400g/t, and 4) NCF 800g/t. Two hundred and forty birds were placed into 12 replicate pens per treatment (5 birds/pen), sixty birds per treatment. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly up to day 42. At this time a 2.5cm section of jejunum and duodenum were excised post mortem for morphological analysis. Birds fed 200g/t and 800g/t NCF were significantly (P<0.01) heavier from day 14 onwards than the control birds. Feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed 200g/t NCF compared to those fed the control at 21 and 35 days (P<0.05). Diets containing 200g/t and 800g/t of NCF significantly decreased broiler feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control in the first phase (1-14 days) (P<0.01) and levels of NCF decreased FCR (P<0.05) in the second phase (15-28 days). NCF had no significant effect on villus height, villus width, crypt depth or villus to crypt ratio in either duodenum or jejunum. NCF did not significantly affect goblet cell area or goblet cell number in the duodenum, however, in the jejunum, 800g/t NCF significantly (P<0.05) increased goblet cell area over the control. In conclusion, NCF showed a positive effect on broiler performance in the starter and grower phases, and increased goblet cell area in the jejunum, suggesting higher levels of mucin production. This indicated that the performance benefit of NCF could be age-dependent, with younger birds responding more than the older ones. There were no additional benefits to performance when feeding NCF for a longer period (after 28 d of age), however it is postulated that birds fed NCF would have greater defence to pathogenic challenge through increased storage capacity of muci

    Participatory autism research: early career and established researchers’ views and experiences

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    Despite more autism research taking place than ever before, there is a disconnect between the current landscape of autism research and what autistic people and their allies want from research. While participatory research has been proposed as a potential solution, we know little about how researchers (particularly, early career researchers) employ this approach. We interviewed 25 researchers (14 early career and 11 established researchers) about their views and experiences of participatory autism research. Through reflexive thematic analysis of interview and focus group data, we identified three themes. First, our participants emphasised the flexible nature of participatory research, and the many forms it can take; yet noted that this flexibility could cause confusion. Second, our participants highlighted the importance of building relationships with research partners, while commenting on the challenges around effective communication and working with diverse groups of people who may have limited research experience. Finally, participants described the challenges of working within academic environments that are not conducive to participatory research (e.g. due to limited time, funding and support). We discuss these issues with regard to changes required at both an individual and systemic level, ensuring that efforts are made to meaningfully involve autistic people and their allies in all stages of the research process
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