211 research outputs found

    Erhöhtes Risiko fĂŒr Stentthrombosen bei DES?

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    Zusammenfassung: Im Vergleich zu unbeschichteten Stents ("bare-metal stents" [BMS]) verhindern medikamentenbeschichtete Stents ("drug-eluting stents" [DES]) mit großer EffektivitĂ€t die Entstehung von Restenosen und damit die Notwendigkeit von Wiedereingriffen am behandelten GefĂ€ĂŸ. Die LangzeitmortalitĂ€t wird durch DES im Vergleich zu BMS weder im positiven noch im negativen Sinne beeinflusst. SpĂ€te Stentthrombosen nach Implantation von DES sind selten, aber dennoch hĂ€ufiger als nach Implantation von BMS. Die einzige heute zur VerfĂŒgung stehende Maßnahme, das Auftreten spĂ€ter Stentthrombosen einzudĂ€mmen, ist die VerlĂ€ngerung der dualen plĂ€ttchenhemmenden Therapie ĂŒber 12 Monate. In Zukunft mĂŒssen einerseits durch weitere Studien speziell von DES profitierende Patientensubgruppen identifiziert und andererseits verbesserte Stents mit geringerem Risiko zur Entwicklung einer spĂ€ten Stentthrombose entwickelt werde

    Interrelation of ST-segment depression during bicycle ergometry and extent of myocardial ischaemia by myocardial perfusion SPECT

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    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare ST-segment depression (STD) during bicycle ergometry and extent of myocardial ischaemia assessed by myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) in a large patient cohort. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 955) referred for MPS with bicycle ergometry and interpretable stress ECG were evaluated with respect to ECG and MPS findings of ischaemia. The maximal STD was recorded and exercise ECG was considered ischaemic if STD was horizontal or downsloping (≄1mm). MPS was interpreted using a 20-segment model with a scale of 0 to 4. A summed stress (SSS), summed rest (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS = SSS−SRS, e.g. extent of ischaemia) were derived. Ischaemia was defined as an SDS ≄ 2. Results: An exercise-induced STD was present in 215 patients (22%) and myocardial ischaemia on MPS was present in 366 patients (38%). The extent of ST-segment depression and the number of ECG leads with significant STD were each strongly and significantly associated with increasing severity of ischaemia and the number of coronary territories involved (p < 0.01 for all correlations). Conclusion: These data demonstrate a strong correlation between the extent of STD, number of ischaemic leads and severity of myocardial ischaemia as assessed by MPS during bicycle ergometr

    Gate-keeper to coronary angiography: comparison of exercise testing, myocardial perfusion SPECT and individually tailored approach for risk stratification

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    We aimed to evaluate the differences between exercise testing (ET), myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and a combination of ET and MPS based risk assessment as outlined by the guidelines with respect to their "gate-keeper” role to coronary angiography (cath) and the associated diagnostic procedural costs if prognostic considerations, as those proposed by the current guidelines and the recent literature, were taken into account. The Duke-score and the summed difference score (SDS; extent of ischemia) were assessed in 955 consecutive patients referred for MPS combined with ET. According to the guidelines and the available literature, three different algorithms for risk stratification were retrospectively applied: (1) ET based risk stratification and cath if intermediate or high risk Duke-score; (2) MPS based risk stratification and cath if SDS≄8; (3) combined approach with ET as first step and MPS in case of intermediate risk Duke-score. A cath would have been suggested in every patient with either high risk Duke-score or SDS≄8 in patients with intermediate risk Duke-score. The referral rate to cath was 27% according to the ET alone, 13% using MPS, and finally 12% applying the combined risk stratification. The cost of the diagnostic work-up including cath were: 615€, 1'299€, and 598€ per patient, respectively. The coronary angiography referral rate widely depends on the diagnostic modality used for risk stratification and according to the referral criteria provided by the guidelines. In the present study, the use of a stress imaging modality (MPS) and published prognostic data was associated with a lower referral rate to cath as compared to exercise testing alone and thus underlines the advantage of a risk based approach applying stress imaging in patients with intermediate risk Duke-scor

    Coronary artery disease and depression

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    Coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as depression are both highly prevalent diseases. Both cause a significant decrease in quality of life for the patient and impose a significant economic burden on society. There are several factors that seem to link depression with the development of CAD and with a worse outcome in patients with established CAD: worse adherence to prescribed medication and life style modifications in depressive patients, as well as higher rates in abnormal platelet function, endothelial dysfunction and lowered heart rate variability. The evidence is growing that depression per se is an independent risk factor for cardiac events in a patient population without known CAD and also in patients with established diagnosis of CAD, particularly after myocardial infarction. Treatment of depression has been shown to improve patients' quality of life. However, it did not improve cardiovascular prognosis in depressed patients even though there is open discussion about the trend to better outcome in treated patients. Large scale clinical trials are needed to answer this question. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors seem to be preferable to tricyclic antidepressants for treatment of depressive patients with comorbid CAD because of their good tolerability and absence of significant cardiovascular side effects. Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), an increasingly used herbal antidepressant drug should be used with caution due to severe and possibly dangerous interaction with cardioactive drug

    Influence of functional deficiency of complement mannose-binding lectin on outcome of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

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    Aims Experimental data point towards a favourable effect of low serum concentrations of complement mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. As comparable data on the role of MBL in human I/R injury is lacking, we investigated the influence of low serum MBL concentrations on mortality of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results Mannose-binding lectin was determined in 890 acute STEMI patients that were prospectively recruited in the APEX-AMI trial. This trial had a primary endpoint of death through Day 30 and secondary endpoints of death through Day 90 and the composite of death, cardiogenic shock, or congestive heart failure (CHF) through Days 30 and 90. Samples were taken immediately before PCI and the analysis of MBL limited to patients having received placebo. Patients with serum MBL levels of or below 100 ng/mL were considered to be functionally deficient. Of the 890 patients, 127 had functional MBL deficiency (14.3%). Characteristics of patients with MBL deficiency and those with MBL levels >100 ng/mL did not differ. In patients with MBL deficiency, there was 1 death (0.79%) compared with 42 deaths (5.51%) in patients with MBL levels >100 ng/mL (P = 0.0233) representing an absolute and relative lower mortality in MBL deficient patients of 4.7 and 85%, respectively. Functional MBL deficiency, however, was not associated with decreased risk of the combined endpoints of death and shock or death, shock, and CHF, respectively. Conclusion Functional deficiency of complement MBL is associated with reduced mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. This unique finding suggests that a component of the innate immune system affects mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT0009163

    Limited diagnostic yield of non-invasive coronary angiography by 16-slice multi-detector spiral computed tomography in routine patients referred for evaluation of coronary artery disease

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    Aims Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) is a promising non-invasive method to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD). As no detailed comparative evaluation in consecutive patients referred for evaluation of CAD has been reported, this prospective study evaluating 2384 coronary segments in 149 consecutive patients was performed. Methods and results The coronary artery tree was analysed in 16 segments both for coronary angiography (CA) and MSCT; a luminal narrowing ≄50% based on visual assessment was considered significant. By MSCT, 77% of 2110 angiographically assessable segments could be evaluated, 94% per patient in proximal and 70% in distal segments (P<0.001). Sensitivity of MSCT to detect significant stenoses was 30% in all, but only 10% in peripheral segments. The main limitations were calcifications in 34% of segments and motion artefacts in 24% of patients. Overall diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of significant CAD was 86% but specificity was only 49%. Conclusion When compared with invasive CA, 16-slice MSCT is of limited diagnostic value for the diagnosis of CAD in consecutive patients. Despite a clinically useful sensitivity for the overall diagnosis of significant CAD, specificity is low. Thus, relevant decisions regarding the need of and suitability for possible revascularization procedures cannot be based on MSCT findings alon

    How reliable are left ventricular ejection fraction cut offs assessed by echocardiography for clinical decision making in patients with heart failure?

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    We aimed to study the potential influence of the variability in the assessment of echocardiographically measured left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on indications for the implantation of internal cardioverter defibrillator and/or cardiac resynchronization devices in heart failure patients. TIME-CHF was a multicenter trial comparing NT-BNP versus symptom-guided therapy in patients aged ≄60years. Patients had their LVEF assessed at the recruiting centre using visual assessment, the area-length or biplane Simpson's method. Echocardiographic data were transferred to the study core-lab for re-assessment. Re-assessment in the core-lab was done with biplane Simpson's method, and included an appraisal of image quality. 413 patients had the LVEF analyzed at the recruiting centre and at the core lab. Image quality was optimal in 191 and suboptimal in 222. Overall, the correlation between LVEF at the recruiting centres and at the core-lab was good, independent of image quality (RÂČ=0.62). However, when a LVEF≀30% or ≄30% was used as a cut-off, about 20% of all patients would have been re-assigned to having either a LVEF above or below the cut-off, this proportion was not significantly influenced by image quality. We conclude that correlation between LVEF assessed by different centres based on the same ultrasound data is good, regardless of image quality. However, one fifth of patients would have been re-assigned to a different category when using the clinically important cut-off of 30