185 research outputs found

    The Mitochondrial Protein Import Apparatus

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    Mitochondrial protein import

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    Transport of proteins into mitochondria

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    The transfer of cytoplasmically synthesized precursor proteins into or across the inner mitochondrial membrane is dependent on energization of the membrane. To investigate the role of this energy requirement, a buffer system was developed in which efficient import of ADP/ATP carrier into mitochondria from the receptor-bound state occurred. This import was rapid and was dependent on divalent cations, whereas the binding of precursor proteins to the mitochondrial surface was slow and was independent of added divalent cations. Using this buffer system, the import of ADP/ATP carrier could be driven by a valinomycin-induced potassium diffusion potential. The protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone was not able to abolish this import. Imposition of a delta pH did not stimulate the import. We conclude that the membrane potential delta psi itself and not the total protonmotive force delta p is the required energy source

    Distinct steps in the import of ADP/ATP carrier into mitochondria

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    Transport of the precursor to the ADP/ATP carrier from the cytosol into the mitochondrial inner membrane was resolved into several consecutive steps. The precursor protein was trapped at distinct stages of the import pathway and subsequently chased to the mature form. In a first reaction, the precursor interacts with a protease-sensitive component on the mitochondrial surface. It then reaches intermediate sites in the outer membrane which are saturable and where it is protected against proteases. This translocation intermediate can be extracted at alkaline pH. We suggest that it is anchored to the membrane by a so far unknown proteinaceous component. The membrane potential delta psi-dependent entrance of the ADP/ATP carrier into the inner membrane takes place at contact sites between outer and inner membranes. Completion of translocation into the inner membrane can occur in the absence of delta psi. A cytosolic component which is present in reticulocyte lysate and which interacts with isolated mitochondria is required for the specific binding of the precursor to mitochondria

    Mitochondrial machinery for import and assembly of proteins

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    Protein folding: Who chaperones nascent chains in bacteria?

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    AbstractThe physiological roles of the molecular chaperones trigger factor and DnaK in de novo protein folding have been unclear, but two new studies have shown that they perform essential, yet partially redundant, functions in chaperoning nascent protein chains in bacteria

    Mitochondrial protein import

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    Proteolytic degradation of receptor sites on the mitochondrial surface strongly reduces the efficiency of mitochondrial protein import. The remaining residual import still involves basic mechanisms of protein import, including: insertion of precursors into the outer membrane, requirement for ATP and a membrane potential, and translocation through contact sites between both membranes. The import of a chloroplast protein into isolated mitochondria which occurs with a low rate is not inhibited by a protease-pretreatment of mitochondria, indicating that this precursor only follows the bypass pathway. The low efficiency of bypass import suggests that this unspecific import does not disturb the uniqueness of mitochondrial protein composition. We conclude that mitochondrial protein import involves a series of steps in which receptor sites appear to be responsible for the specificity of protein uptake

    Mitochondrial protein import

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    The precursors of the mitochondrial proteins ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) and F1-ATPase subunit β (F1β) were accumulated at the stages of binding to receptor sites on the mitochondrial outer membrane, or in contact sites between outer and inner membranes. Specific antibodies raised against the mature proteins were added to the isolated mitochondria and efficiently bound to these translocation intermediates. Further movement of the precursors to consecutive steps along their import pathway was thereby inhibited. Controls showed that precursor proteins which were inserted into or translocated across the outer membrane were not recognized by the antibodies unless the mitochondrial membranes were disrupted. We conclude that the trapped translocation intermediates have antigenic sites exposed to the outside of the outer membrane
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