3 research outputs found

    Characterization from Diesel and Renewable Fuel Engine Exhaust: Particulate Size/Mass Distributions and Optical Properties

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    Combustion of fossil fuel produces emissions and is one of the major environmental problems leading to climate change. Diesel engines are highly efficient but produce particulate emissions. These particulate emissions are considered dangerous to human health because inhaling particulates may cause respiratory and heart disease. Substituting fossil diesel fuel with renewable diesel fuel and using diesel particulate filters is one possibility to meet stringent legislative requirements. With this motivation, the present experimental investigation aimed to evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD), optical properties of particulate matter (PM) emitted, and the outcome of using an after-treatment system comprising of a diesel particle filter (DPF). This investigation aimed to make a comparative analysis of particulate emission upstream and downstream of the DPF with and without ultraviolet (UV) light (405\ua0nm and 781\ua0nm wavelength) turned on/off. Experiments were performed at (a) engine idle with a torque of 6 Nm at 750\ua0rpm, IMEP of 1.35\ua0bar and power of 0.5\ua0kW, (b) engine at part load with a torque of 32 Nm at 1200\ua0rpm, IMEP of 8.5\ua0bar and power of 4.5\ua0kW. Diesel engine was operated on two fuels (a) Diesel and (b) EHR7. Results showed that as and when UV light was turned on, a distinct nucleation mode that dominated the number concentration for both test fuels were observed. Downstream of the filter had relatively higher AAE values which show the contribution to climate change. Present experimental research is important for renewable fuel industries, industrial innovation\u27s future, and the exhaust gas after-treatment system (EATS) community. The results contribute to knowledge for occupational exposure, human health, and the environment

    Periodic changes in the N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin G during the menstrual cycle

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    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant plasma glycoprotein and a prominent humoral immune mediator. Glycan composition affects the affinity of IgG to ligands and consequent immune responses. The modification of IgG N-glycosylation is considered to be one of the various mechanisms by which sex hormones modulate the immune system. Although the menstrual cycle is the central sex hormone-related physiological process in most women of reproductive age, IgG N-glycosylation dynamics during the menstrual cycle have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap, we profiled the plasma IgG N-glycans of 70 healthy premenopausal women at 12 time points during their menstrual cycles (every 7 days for 3 months) using hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC). We observed cyclic periodic changes in the N-glycosylation of IgG in association with the menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone concentration in plasma. On the integrated cohort level, the modeled average menstrual cycle effect on the abundance of IgG N-glycosylation traits was low for each trait, with the highest being 1.1% for agalactosylated N-glycans. However, intrapersonal changes were relatively high in some cases; for example, the largest difference between the minimum and maximum values during the menstrual cycle was up to 21% for sialylated N-glycans. Across all measurements, the menstrual cycle phase could explain up to 0.72% of the variation in the abundance of a single IgG glycosylation trait of monogalactosylation. In contrast, up to 99% of the variation in the abundance of digalactosylation could be attributed to interpersonal differences in IgG N-glycosylation. In conclusion, the average extent of changes in the IgG N-glycopattern that occur during the menstrual cycle is small; thus, the IgG N-glycoprofiling of women in large sample-size studies can be performed regardless of menstrual cycle phase

    Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

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    Acknowledgements Glycan analysis was partly supported by European Commission GlycoBioM (contract #259869), IBD-BIOM (contract #305479), HighGlycan (contract #278535), MIMOmics (contract #305280), HTP-GlycoMet (contract #324400) and IntegraLife (contract #315997) grants. The SEATON cohort was partly funded by the UK Medical Research Council (contract #80219) and Asthma UK (contract #00/011 and 02/017) grants.Peer reviewedPublisher PD