1,572 research outputs found

    Associations Between School Transport and Obesity by Gender, Grade, Physical Activity, Race/Ethnicity, and Economic Disadvantage

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    Declining rates of active transportation to school have coincided with the childhood obesity epidemic. The contribution of school transport modes to obesity among children may vary by sociodemographic characteristics. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of school transport modes and obesity by gender, grade, physical activity, race/ethnicity, and economic disadvantage in a representative sample of Texas school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on reported sociodemographic characteristics, school transport mode, and physical activity behavior were collected from the Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) Survey, 2015-2016. Measured height and weight were used to calculate BMI and classify 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students by obesity status. The sampling frame had 14,976 students from 359 schools to provide weighted state-level estimates by grade. Associations were conducted between school transport modes and obesity. Interaction terms were included to test if school transport mode-obesity associations differed by gender, grade, physical activity, race/ethnicity, or economic disadvantage. RESULTS: Active and passive school transport modes were not significantly associated with obesity (p\u3e0.05). Gender, grade, physical activity, race/ethnicity, and economic disadvantage were significantly associated with obesity (p\u3c0.05). Bike to school by race/ethnicity and walk to school by grade were significantly associated with obesity (p\u3c0.05), after controlling for all other sociodemographic characteristics. Hispanic/African American students who biked to school were significantly more likely to have obesity compared to White/Other students who did not bike to school (OR=5.48, p\u3c0.05, 95% CI: 1.25, 24.00). Students in 8th grade who walked to school were significantly less likely to have obesity than 4th/11th grade students who did not walk to school (OR=0.42, p\u3c0.05, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.91). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that associations between active school transport modes and obesity differ by sociodemographic characteristics, including race/ethnicity and grade. Population-based approaches to childhood obesity prevention may benefit from understanding disparities in opportunities for school transport modes

    Issues in accelerometer methodology: the role of epoch length on estimates of physical activity and relationships with health outcomes in overweight, post-menopausal women

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Current accelerometer technology allows for data collection using brief time sampling intervals (i.e., epochs). The study aims were to examine the role of epoch length on physical activity estimates and subsequent relationships with clinically-meaningful health outcomes in post-menopausal women.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data was obtained from the Woman On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (n = 102). Differences in activity estimates presented as 60s and 10s epochs were evaluated using paired t-tests. Relationships with health outcomes were examined using correlational and regression analyses to evaluate differences by epoch length.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Inactivity, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity (MVPA) were significantly higher and light-intensity activity was significantly lower (all <it>P </it>< 0.001) when presented as 10s epochs. The correlation between inactivity and self-reported physical activity was stronger with 10s estimates (<it>P </it>< 0.03); however, the regression slopes were not significantly different. Conversely, relationships between MVPA and body weight, BMI, whole body and trunk lean and fat mass, and femoral neck bone mineral density was stronger with 60s estimates (all <it>P </it>< 0.05); however, regression slopes were similar.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These findings suggest that although the use of a shorter time sampling interval may suggestively reduce misclassification error of physical activity estimates, associations with health outcomes did not yield strikingly different results. Additional studies are needed to further our understanding of the ways in which epoch length contributes to the ascertainment of physical activity in research studies.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00023543</p

    Taking the next step: a systematic review and meta-analysis of physical activity and behavior change interventions in recent post-treatment breast cancer survivors

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    Research has shown that recent post-treatment breast cancer survivors face significant challenges around physical activity as they transition to recovery. This review examined randomized controlled trials targeting physical activity behavior change in breast cancer survivors <5 years post-treatment and describes 1) characteristics of interventions for breast cancer survivors as well as 2) effect size estimates for these studies

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector