1,658 research outputs found

    Management of duodenal stump fistula after gastrectomy for gastric cancer: systematic review

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    AIM: To identify the most effective treatment of duodenal stump fistula (DSF) after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CILEA Archive, BMJ Clinical Evidence and UpToDate databases were analyzed. Three hundred eighty-eight manuscripts were retrieved and analyzed and thirteen studies published between 1988 and 2014 were finally selected according to the inclusion criteria, for a total of 145 cases of DSF, which represented our group of study. Only patients with DSF after gastrectomy for malignancy were selected. Data about patients' characteristics, type of treatment, short and long-term outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: In the 13 studies different types of treatment were proposed: conservative approach, surgical approach, percutaneous approach and endoscopic approach (3 cases). The overall mortality rate was 11.7% for the entire cohort. The more frequent complications were sepsis, abscesses, peritonitis, bleeding, pneumonia and multi-organ failure. Conservative approach was performed in 6 studies for a total of 79 patients, in patients with stable general condition, often associated with percutaneous approach. A complete resolution of the leakage was achieved in 92.3% of these patients, with a healing time ranging from 17 to 71 d. Surgical approach included duodenostomy, duodeno-jejunostomy, pancreatoduodenectomy and the use of rectus muscle flap. In-hospital stay of patients who underwent relaparotomy ranged from 1 to 1035 d. The percutaneous approach included drainage of abscesses or duodenostomy (32 cases) and percutaneous biliary diversion (13 cases). The median healing time in this group was 43 d. CONCLUSION: Conservative approach is the treatment of choice, eventually associated with percutaneus drainage. Surgical approach should be reserved for severe cases or when conservative approaches fail

    Re-discovery of the top quark at the LHC and first measurements

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    This paper describes the top quark physics measurements that can be performed with the first LHC data in the ATLAS and CMS experiments.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures. Talk given at `V Workshop Italiano sulla Fisica pp a LHC', Perugia, Italy, 30 January - 2 February 200

    Monte Carlo generators for top quark physics at the LHC

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    We review the main features of Monte Carlo generators for top quark phenomenology and present some results for t-tbar and single-top signals and backgrounds at the LHC.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures. Talk given at `V Workshop Italiano sulla Fisica pp a LHC', Perugia, Italy, 30 January - 2 February 2008. References update

    The Role of Neoadjuvant Therapy in Surgical Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

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    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and its burden is destined to increase. Multimodal treatment is crucial to achieve a cure, but standardization is far to come. Borderline resectable disease is the most challenging situation to face. An anatomically resectable disease may hide a biologically aggressive or undiagnosed systemic disease. Whether the patient has to undergo surgery first or after locoregional or systemic therapy is still unknown. Decision-making stands on low-quality evidences since RCTs are lacking. Neoadjuvant treatment may downstage the tumor and treat an early systemic disease, selecting patients for surgery in order to achieve a margin-free resection and avoid early recurrences and useless pancreatectomies. Resectable patients without other worrisome features may benefit from a surgery-first approach, while all other nonmetastatic patients should be enrolled in trials to rule out the outcomes of neoadjuvant treatments

    Prognostic role of nodal ratio, LODDS, pN in patients with pancreatic cancer with venous involvement

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    Background: The UICC/AJCC TNM staging system classifies lymph nodes as N0 and N1 in pancreatic cancer. Aim of the study is to determine whether the number of examine nodes, the nodal ratio (NR) and the logarithm odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) may better stratify the prognosis of patients undergoing pancreatectomy combined with venous resection for pancreatic cancer with venous involvement. Methods: A multicenter database of 303 patients undergoing pancreatectomy in 9 Italian referral centers was analyzed. The prognostic impact of number of retrieved and examined nodes, NR, LODDS was analyzed and compared with ROC curves analysis, Pearson test, univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The number of metastatic nodes, pN, the NR and LODDS was significantly correlated with survival at multivariate analyses. The corresponding AUC for the number of metastatic nodes, pN, the NR and LODDS were 0.66, 0.69, 0.63 and 0.65, respectively. The Pearson test showed a significant correlation between the number of retrieved lymph nodes and number of metastatic nodes, pN and the NR. LODDS had the lower coefficient correlation. Concerning N1 patients, the NR, the LODDS and the number of metastatic nodes were able to significantly further stratify survival (p = 0.040; p = 0.046; p = 0.038, respectively). Conclusions: The number of examined lymph nodes, the NR and LODDS are useful for further prognostic stratification of N1 patients in the setting of pancreatectomy combined with PV/SMV resection. No superiority of one over the others methods was detected
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