12 research outputs found

    The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

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    Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS 65 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA; moreover, it might express prognostic potential for clustering the patient population in risk classes. Confirmatory studies are required

    Associations of pretreatment serum total testosterone measurements with pathology-detected Gleason score cancer

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    Background and Objective: Prostate cancer is an endocrine-dependent tumor which is still under-investigated for physiopathology factors related to its natural history. The association of pretreatment total testosterone (TT) serum levels with prostate cancer is still a controversial topic. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations and functional relationships of preoperative TT serum level and pathology-detected Gleason score (pGS). Materials and Methods: Pretreatment and pathological variables of 220 patients operated with radical prostatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percentage of positive biopsy cores (P+), biopsy Gleason score (bGS), pGS, TT and free testosterone were the continuous variables, while clinical stage (cT: cT1c, cT2/3), biopsy Gleason pattern (bGP: 3+4), pathology Gleason pattern (pGP: 3+4), pathology stage (pT: pT2, pT3a, pT3b), pathology nodal staging (pN: pN0, pN1, pNx) and surgical margin invasion by cancer (R-, R+) were the categorical variables. Statistical methods were computed for assessing associations of TT and pGS; moreover, simple and multiple linear regression analysis (SLRA and MLRA) were used for assessing functional relationships of TT and pGS. Results: High-grade tumors (pGS >= 8.0) were associated with bGS >6.0 (p = 3+4 (p 0.31% (p = 0.006), cT2/3 (p = 0.01), TT > 15.5 nmol/l (p = 0.0004) and, to a lesser extent, PSA >6.27 mu g/l (p = 0.06). The odds ratio (OR) ranked as follows: 2.01 (PSA >6.27 mu g/l), 2.88 (cT2/3), 3.23 (P+ >0.31%), 5.53 (TT >15.5 nmol/l) and 12.09 (pGP >= 3+4 and pGS >= 8.0). On SLRA, pGS variation was significantly predicted by bGS (p 15.5 nmol/l) because the predictive coefficient increased to 0.32, which means that patients with TT >15.5 have a significantly higher estimated risk for high-grade pGS than patients with TT <= 5.5 nmol/l (OR = 1.31). Conclusion: In a patient population undergoing radical prostatectomy, increased pretreatment serum measurements of TT are associated with and functionally related to high-grade pGS; moreover, baseline TT together with bGS and PSA are important factors for predicting pGS and assessing high-grade tumors. Baseline TT serum levels might have prognostic potential for assessing treatment response for continuous as well as intermittent androgen deprivation therapy

    Low Preoperative Prolactin Levels Predict Non-Organ Confined Prostate Cancer in Clinically Localized Disease

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    Introduction: To evaluate the association between preoperative serum prolactin (PRL) levels and risk of non-organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) in clinically localized disease. Materials and Methods: From December 2007 to December 2011, 124 patients with clinically localized PCa were retrospectively evaluated. Non-organ confined disease in the surgical specimen was defined according to extra-capsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, and lymph node invasion. The association between clinical factors and serum levels of pituitary-testis hormones with the risk of non-organ confined disease was evaluated. Results: Perioperative factors associated with non-organ confined disease include prostatic-specific antigen (OR 1.144; p = 0.025), proportion of biopsy positive cores (BPC, OR 36.702; p = 0.007), bioptical Gleason Score &gt; 6 (OR 2.785; p = 0.034), and PRL (OR 0.756, p &lt; 0.0001). The association was strong for BPC (area under the curve [AUC] 0.704; p &lt; 0.0001) and PRL (AUC 0.299; p &lt; 0.0001). When we dichotomized according to median value, PRL 647.7 \u3bcg/L was an independent predictor of extraprostatic disease (OR 6.571; p &lt; 0.0001) with fair discrimination power (AUC 0.704; p &lt; 0.0001). Conclusion: Low preoperative PRL levels predict the risk of non-organ confined PCa in clinically localized disease

    Chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to risk of prostate cancer

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    Background: Chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII) might be involved in prostate cancer (PCA) and benign hyperplasia (BPH); however, its significance is controversial. Chronic inflammatory prostatitis type IV is the most common non cancer diagnosis in men undergoing biopsy because of suspected PCA. Objective: To evaluate potential associations of coexistent CII and PCA in biopsy specimens after prostate assessment. Design, setting, and participants: Between January 2007 and December 2008, 415 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The investigated variables included Age (years) and PSA (ug/l); moreover, CII+, glandular atrophy (GA+), glandular hyperplasia (GH+), prostate Intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN+), atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP+) and PCA positive cores (P+) were evaluated as categorical and continuous (proportion of positive cores). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of CII+ and PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. Results and limitations: In the patient population, a biopsy core positive for PCA was detected in 34.2% of cases and the rate of high grade PCA (HGPCA: bGS ! 8) resulted 4.82%. CII+ significantly and inversely associated with a positive biopsy core P+ (P 0.0001; OR = 0.26) and HGPCA (P = 0.0005; OR = 0.05). Moreover, the associations indicated that patients with coexistent CII+ on needle biopsy were 74% less likely to have coexistent PCA than men without CII+ as well as 95% less likely to have HGPCA in the biopsy core than men without coexistent CII+. There were limits in our study which was single centre and included only one dedicated pathologist. Conclusions: There was an inverse association of chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV and risk of PCA; moreover, HGPCA was less likely to be detected in cancers associated with coexistent CII. In prostate microenvironment, prostate chronic inflammation may be protective; however, its role in PCA carcinogenesis remains controversial and needs further research

    Chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to risk of prostate cancer

    No full text
    Background: Chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII) might be involved in prostate cancer (PCA) and benign hyperplasia (BPH); however, its significance is controversial. Chronic inflammatory prostatitis type IV is the most common non cancer diagnosis in men undergoing biopsy because of suspected PCA. Objective: To evaluate potential associations of coexistent CII and PCA in biopsy specimens after prostate assessment. Design, setting, and participants: Between January 2007 and December 2008, 415 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The investigated variables included Age (years) and PSA (ug/l); moreover, CII+, glandular atrophy (GA+), glandular hyperplasia (GH+), prostate Intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN+), atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP+) and PCA positive cores (P+) were evaluated as categorical and continuous (proportion of positive cores). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of CII+ and PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. Results and limitations: In the patient population, a biopsy core positive for PCA was detected in 34.2% of cases and the rate of high grade PCA (HGPCA: bGS ! 8) resulted 4.82%. CII+ significantly and inversely associated with a positive biopsy core P+ (P &lt; 0.0001; OR = 0.26) and HGPCA (P = 0.0005; OR = 0.05). Moreover, the associations indicated that patients with coexistent CII+ on needle biopsy were 74% less likely to have coexistent PCA than men without CII+ as well as 95% less likely to have HGPCA in the biopsy core than men without coexistent CII+. There were limits in our study which was single centre and included only one dedicated pathologist. Conclusions: There was an inverse association of chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV and risk of PCA; moreover, HGPCA was less likely to be detected in cancers associated with coexistent CII. In prostate microenvironment, prostate chronic inflammation may be protective; however, its role in PCA carcinogenesis remains controversial and needs further research

    Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume)

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    Objective: To investigate potential associations of preoperative total testosterone (TT) with tumor volume (TV) and grade of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: Patients who were under medications impacting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-testis-prostate axis were excluded. TT was measured preoperatively at least 1 month after biopsies and TV was calculated on the removed prostate specimen. Other continuous variables included total prostate specific antigen (PSA), percentage of positive cores (P+) and weight (W) of the removed prostate. Patients were categorized according to the pathologic Gleason score (pGS) in 3 groups (pGS 6, 7 and¬†>¬†7). Invasion of the seminal vesicles was coded as seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). Results: The median levels of TT were significantly and increasingly higher from pGS 6 (14.7¬†nmol/L) to pGS 7 (15.0¬†nmol/L) and pGS¬†>¬†7 (18.8¬†nmol/L). The median values of TV were also detected significantly and increasingly higher from pGS 6 (5.6¬†mL) to pGS 7 (8.1¬†mL) and pGS¬†>¬†7 (14.8¬†mL). The median preoperative levels of PSA were also increasing from pGS 6 (5.9 őľg/L) to pGS 7 (6.2¬†őľg/L) and pGS¬†>¬†7 (7.7¬†őľg/L). There was a significant and positive correlation of TV to PSA, TT and P+. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TV was significantly and independently predicted by TT, PSA and P+. High grade PCa (pGS¬†>¬†7) independently associated with TV, TT, P+ and SVI. The median density values of TT relative to TV (quotient TT/TV) significantly decreased from pGS 6 (2.6¬†nmol/L/mL) to pGS 7 (1.9¬†nmol/L/mL) and pGS¬†>¬†7 (1.4¬†nmol/L/mL). The median density values of PSA relative to TV (quotient PSA/TV) also significantly decreased from pGS (1.1¬†őľg/L/mL) to pGS 7 (0.7¬†őľg/L/mL) and pGS¬†>¬†7 (0.6¬†őľg/L/mL). Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour

    The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

    No full text
    Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P &lt; 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ‚Č• 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA; moreover, it might express prognostic potential for clustering the patient population in risk classes. Confirmatory studies are required
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