106 research outputs found

    Common features between neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the biliary tract and the pancreas

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    The bile duct system and pancreas show many similarities due to their anatomical proximity and common embryological origin. Consequently, preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the bile duct and pancreas share analogies in terms of molecular, histological and pathophysiological features. Intraepithelial neoplasms are reported in biliary tract, as biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN), and in pancreas, as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN). Both can evolve to invasive carcinomas, respectively cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Intraductal papillary neoplasms arise in biliary tract and pancreas. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB) share common histologic and phenotypic features such as pancreatobiliary, gastric, intestinal and oncocytic types, and biological behavior with the pancreatic counterpart, the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). All these neoplastic lesions exhibit similar immunohistochemical phenotypes, suggesting a common carcinogenic process. Indeed, CCA and PDAC display similar clinic-pathological features as growth pattern, poor response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and, as a consequence, an unfavorable prognosis. The objective of this review is to discuss similarities and differences between the neoplastic lesions of the pancreas and biliary tract with potential implications on a common origin from similar stem/progenitor cells

    Changes in arginase isoforms in a murine model of neonatal brain hypoxia-ischemia.

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    BackgroundArginases (ARG isoforms, ARG-1/ARG-2) are key regulatory enzymes of inflammation and tissue repair; however, their role after neonatal brain hypoxia (H) and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains unknown.MethodsC57BL/6 mice subjected to the Vannucci procedure on postnatal day (P9) were sacrificed at different timepoints. The degree of brain damage was assessed histologically. ARG spatiotemporal localization was determined via immunohistochemistry. ARG expression was measured by Western blot and activity spectrophotometrically.ResultsARG isoform expression increased during neurodevelopment (P9-P17) in the cortex and hippocampus. This was suppressed with H and HI only in the hippocampus. In the cortex, both isoforms increased with H alone and only ARG-2 increased with HI at 3 days. ARG activity during neurodevelopment remained unchanged, but increased at 1 day with H and not HI. ARG-1 localized with microglia at the injury site as early as 4 h after injury, while ARG-2 localized with neurons.ConclusionsARG isoform expression increases with age from P9 to P17, but is suppressed by injury specifically in the hippocampus and not in the cortex. Both levels and activity of ARG isoforms increase with H, while ARG-1 immunolabelling is upregulated in the HI cortex. Evidently, ARG isoforms in the brain differ in spatiotemporal localization, expression, and activity during neurodevelopment and after injury.ImpactArginase isoforms change during neurodevelopment and after neonatal brain HI. This is the first study investigating the key enzymes of inflammation and tissue repair called arginases following murine neonatal brain HI. The highly region- and cell-specific expression suggests the possibility of specific functions of arginases. ARG-1 in microglia at the injury site may regulate neuroinflammation, while ARG-2 in neurons of developmental structures may impact neurodevelopment. While further studies are needed to describe the exact role of ARGs after neonatal brain HI, our study adds valuable data on anatomical localization and expression of ARGs in brain during development and after stroke

    Using Entropy Maximization to Understand the Determinants of Structural Dynamics beyond Native Contact Topology

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    Comparison of elastic network model predictions with experimental data has provided important insights on the dominant role of the network of inter-residue contacts in defining the global dynamics of proteins. Most of these studies have focused on interpreting the mean-square fluctuations of residues, or deriving the most collective, or softest, modes of motions that are known to be insensitive to structural and energetic details. However, with increasing structural data, we are in a position to perform a more critical assessment of the structure-dynamics relations in proteins, and gain a deeper understanding of the major determinants of not only the mean-square fluctuations and lowest frequency modes, but the covariance or the cross-correlations between residue fluctuations and the shapes of higher modes. A systematic study of a large set of NMR-determined proteins is analyzed using a novel method based on entropy maximization to demonstrate that the next level of refinement in the elastic network model description of proteins ought to take into consideration properties such as contact order (or sequential separation between contacting residues) and the secondary structure types of the interacting residues, whereas the types of amino acids do not play a critical role. Most importantly, an optimal description of observed cross-correlations requires the inclusion of destabilizing, as opposed to exclusively stabilizing, interactions, stipulating the functional significance of local frustration in imparting native-like dynamics. This study provides us with a deeper understanding of the structural basis of experimentally observed behavior, and opens the way to the development of more accurate models for exploring protein dynamics

    Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot

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    Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and Red Green and Blue (RGB) imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region.Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa = 0.8) and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R2 of 0.8–0.9) allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented enables the integration of site-based biotic assessment with structural vegetation types for the rapid delineation and prioritization of key refugia

    Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Variants within <it>APOE </it>(rs7412, rs429358), <it>PON1 </it>(rs854560), <it>ITGB3 </it>(rs5918), and <it>NOS3 </it>(rs2070744) were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the <it>PON1 </it>A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, <it>APOE </it>variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of <it>ITGB3 </it>was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: <it>PON1 </it>in relation to HDL-C; <it>APOE </it>and <it>NOS3 </it>in relation to LDL-C; and <it>APOE </it>in relation to TC.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in <it>APOE</it>, <it>ITGB3, NOS3</it>, and <it>PON1 </it>in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample survey. Results from our study contribute to a growing body of literature identifying key determinants of plasma lipoprotein concentrations and could provide insight into the biological mechanisms underlying serum lipid and cholesterol concentrations.</p

    Switching to dual/monotherapy determines an increase in CD8+ in HIV-infected individuals: An observational cohort study

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    Background: The CD4/CD8 ratio has been associated with the risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. We describe trends in immunological parameters in people who underwent a switch to monotherapy or dual therapy, compared to a control group remaining on triple antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We included patients in Icona who started a three-drug combination ART regimen from an ART-naïve status and achieved a viral load ≤ 50 copies/mL; they were subsequently switched to another triple or to a mono or double regimen. Standard linear regression at fixed points in time (12-24 months after the switch) and linear mixed model analysis with random intercepts and slopes were used to compare CD4 and CD8 counts and their ratio over time according to regimen types (triple vs. dual and vs. mono). Results: A total of 1241 patients were included; 1073 switched to triple regimens, 104 to dual (72 with 1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 32 NRTI-sparing), and 64 to monotherapy. At 12 months after the switch, for the multivariable linear regression the mean change in the log10 CD4/CD8 ratio for patients on dual therapy was -0.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05, -0.0002), and the mean change in CD8 count was +99 (95% CI +12.1, +186.3), taking those on triple therapy as reference. In contrast, there was no evidence for a difference in CD4 count change. When using all counts, there was evidence for a significant difference in the slope of the ratio and CD8 count between people who were switched to triple (points/year change ratio = +0.056, CD8 = -25.7) and those to dual regimen (ratio = -0.029, CD8 = +110.4). Conclusions: We found an increase in CD8 lymphocytes in people who were switched to dual regimens compared to those who were switched to triple. Patients on monotherapy did not show significant differences. The long-term implications of this difference should be ascertained

    Review of methods used by chiropractors to determine the site for applying manipulation

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    Background: With the development of increasing evidence for the use of manipulation in the management of musculoskeletal conditions, there is growing interest in identifying the appropriate indications for care. Recently, attempts have been made to develop clinical prediction rules, however the validity of these clinical prediction rules remains unclear and their impact on care delivery has yet to be established. The current study was designed to evaluate the literature on the validity and reliability of the more common methods used by doctors of chiropractic to inform the choice of the site at which to apply spinal manipulation. Methods: Structured searches were conducted in Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and ICL, supported by hand searches of archives, to identify studies of the diagnostic reliability and validity of common methods used to identify the site of treatment application. To be included, studies were to present original data from studies of human subjects and be designed to address the region or location of care delivery. Only English language manuscripts from peer-reviewed journals were included. The quality of evidence was ranked using QUADAS for validity and QAREL for reliability, as appropriate. Data were extracted and synthesized, and were evaluated in terms of strength of evidence and the degree to which the evidence was favourable for clinical use of the method under investigation. Results: A total of 2594 titles were screened from which 201 articles met all inclusion criteria. The spectrum of manuscript quality was quite broad, as was the degree to which the evidence favoured clinical application of the diagnostic methods reviewed. The most convincing favourable evidence was for methods which confirmed or provoked pain at a specific spinal segmental level or region. There was also high quality evidence supporting the use, with limitations, of static and motion palpation, and measures of leg length inequality. Evidence of mixed quality supported the use, with limitations, of postural evaluation. The evidence was unclear on the applicability of measures of stiffness and the use of spinal x-rays. The evidence was of mixed quality, but unfavourable for the use of manual muscle testing, skin conductance, surface electromyography and skin temperature measurement. Conclusions: A considerable range of methods is in use for determining where in the spine to administer spinal manipulation. The currently published evidence falls across a spectrum ranging from strongly favourable to strongly unfavourable in regard to using these methods. In general, the stronger and more favourable evidence is for those procedures which take a direct measure of the presumptive site of care– methods involving pain provocation upon palpation or localized tissue examination. Procedures which involve some indirect assessment for identifying the manipulable lesion of the spine–such as skin conductance or thermography–tend not to be supported by the available evidence.https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-709X-21-3

    Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study

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