4,143 research outputs found

    Adiponectin in relation to childhood myeloblastic leukaemia

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    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein known to induce apoptosis, has been reported to be inversely related to breast and endometrial cancers and recently found to inhibit proliferation of myeloid but not lymphoid cell lines. We hypothesised that adiponectin may be inversely associated with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), but not with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of B (ALL-B) or T (ALL-T) cell origin in children. Blood samples and clinical information were collected over the period 1996–2000 from 201 children (0–14 years old) with leukaemia (22 AML, 161 ALL-B and 18 ALL-T cases) through a national network of childhood Hematology-Oncology units in Greece and from 201 controls hospitalised for minor pediatric ailments. Serum adiponectin levels were measured under code, at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA using a radioimmunoassay procedure. Each of the three leukaemia groups was compared with the control group through multiple logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for an increase of adiponectin equal to 1 s.d. among controls were estimated controlling for gender, age, as well as for height and weight, expressed in age–gender-specific centiles of Greek growth curves. Adiponectin was inversely associated with AML (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.34–0.94), whereas it was not significantly associated with either ALL-B (OR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.71–1.10) or ALL-T (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 0.67–1.72). Biological plausibility and empirical evidence point to the importance of this hormone in the pathogenesis of childhood AML

    Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Is Upregulated in Lean and Obese Men During Acute Resistance Exercise

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    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effect of acute resistance exercise on adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase activity (TGLA) in lean and obese men

    Daycare attendance and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

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    The relationship between daycare/preschool (‘daycare’) attendance and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was evaluated in the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study. Incident cases (age 1–14 years) were rapidly ascertained during 1995–1999. Population-based controls were randomly selected from the California birth registry, individually matched on date of birth, gender, race, Hispanicity, and residence, resulting in a total of 140 case–controls pairs. Fewer cases (n=92, 66%) attended daycare than controls (n=103, 74%). Children who had more total child–hours had a significantly reduced risk of ALL. The odds ratio associated with each thousand child–hours was 0.991 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.984–0.999), which means that a child with 50 thousand child–hours (who may have, for example, attended a daycare with 15 other children, 25 h per week, for a total duration of 30.65 months) would have an odds ratio of (0.991)50=0.64 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95), compared to children who never attended daycare. Besides, controls started daycare at a younger age, attended daycare for longer duration, remained in daycare for more hours, and were exposed to more children at each daycare. These findings support the hypothesis that delayed exposure to common infections plays an important role in the aetiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and suggest that extensive contact with other children in a daycare setting is associated with a reduced risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Pediatric Cushing disease: disparities in disease severity and outcomes in the Hispanic and African-American populations.

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    BackgroundLittle is known about the contribution of racial and socioeconomic disparities to severity and outcomes in children with Cushing disease (CD).MethodsA total of 129 children with CD, 45 Hispanic/Latino or African-American (HI/AA) and 84 non-Hispanic White (non-HW), were included in this study. A 10-point index for rating severity (CD severity) incorporated the degree of hypercortisolemia, glucose tolerance, hypertension, anthropomorphic measurements, disease duration, and tumor characteristics. Race, ethnicity, age, gender, local obesity prevalence, estimated median income, and access to care were assessed in regression analyses of CD severity.ResultsThe mean CD severity in the HI/AA group was worse than that in the non-HW group (4.9±2.0 vs. 4.1±1.9, P=0.023); driving factors included higher cortisol levels and larger tumor size. Multiple regression models confirmed that race (P=0.027) and older age (P=0.014) were the most important predictors of worse CD severity. When followed up a median of 2.3 years after surgery, the relative risk for persistent CD combined with recurrence was 2.8 times higher in the HI/AA group compared with that in the non-HW group (95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.5).ConclusionOur data show that the driving forces for the discrepancy in severity of CD are older age and race/ethnicity. Importantly, the risk for persistent and recurrent CD was higher in minority children

    A falls prevention programme to improve quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older people receiving home help services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    BACKGROUND: Falls and fall-related injuries in older adults are associated with great burdens, both for the individuals, the health care system and the society. Previous research has shown evidence for the efficiency of exercise as falls prevention. An understudied group are older adults receiving home help services, and the effect of a falls prevention programme on health-related quality of life is unclear. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to examine the effect of a falls prevention programme on quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older adults receiving home help services. A secondary aim is to explore the mediating factors between falls prevention and health-related quality of life. METHODS: The study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants are older adults, aged 67 or older, receiving home help services, who are able to walk with or without walking aids, who have experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months and who have a Mini Mental State Examination of 23 or above. The intervention group receives a programme, based on the Otago Exercise Programme, lasting 12 weeks including home visits and motivational telephone calls. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-36). Secondary outcomes are leg strength, balance, walking speed, walking habits, activities of daily living, nutritional status and falls efficacy. All measurements are performed at baseline, following intervention at 3 months and at 6 months' follow-up. Sample size, based on the primary outcome, is set to 150 participants randomised into the two arms, including an estimated 15-20% drop out. Participants are recruited from six municipalities in Norway. DISCUSSION: This trial will generate new knowledge on the effects of an exercise falls prevention programme among older fallers receiving home help services. This knowledge will be useful for clinicians, for health managers in the primary health care service and for policy makers

    Adiponectin and cancer: a systematic review

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    Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of several malignancies, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain to be fully elucidated. Adiponectin, an adipocyte secreted endogenous insulin sensitizer, appears to play an important role not only in glucose and lipid metabolism but also in the development and progression of several obesity-related malignancies. In this review, we present recent findings on the association of adiponectin with several malignancies as well as recent data on underlying molecular mechanisms that provide novel insights into the association between obesity and cancer risk. We also identify important research questions that remain unanswered