136 research outputs found

    Development of an Activity Patterns Scale (APS)

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    Six activity patterns were identified across various self-report measures in participants with chronic pain: Pain Avoidance, Activity Avoidance; Task Contingent Persistence; Excessive Persistence, Pain Contingent Persistence and Pacing (Kindermans et al., 2011). It was proposed that instruments assessing “pacing” should include items addressing one specific pacing behavior (breaking tasks into smaller pieces; taking frequent short rests and speeding up or slowing down) with a single goal (increasing activity level, conserve energy for valued activities and pain reduction) (Nielson et al., 2013). The aim of the present study was to develop an instrument to assess the activity patterns identified by Kindermans et al. (2011). The instrument also included three pacing scales one for each of the aforementioned goals. Methods A sample of 229 patients with fibromyalgia and 62 suffering other rheumatic diseases answered online the APS and the “Patterns of Activity Measure-Pain” (POAM-P) (Cane et al., 2007). Three alternative factor structures were tested by confirmatory factor analyses performed via structural equation modelling. . Results The structure with the best fit had 8 factors corresponding to the hypothesized scales: Pain Avoidance (α=.60), Activity Avoidance (α=.60); Task Contingent Persistence (α=.81); Excessive Persistence (α=.84), Pain Contingent Persistence (α=.70), Pacing for increasing activity (α=.76), Pacing for energy conservation (α=.72) and Pacing for pain reduction (α=.65). The correlations with the POAM-P scales were high and in the postulated direction. Conclusions The APS showed adequate reliability and structural validity. According to these results, Avoidance, Persistence and Pacing seem to be multidimensional constructs.Universidad de MĂĄlaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional AndalucĂ­a Tech

    Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance

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    Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) x 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. Perspective: Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative. (C) 2016 by the American Pain Societ

    Validation of the surgical fear questionnaire in adult patients waiting for elective surgery

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    Objectives: Because existing instruments for assessing surgical fear seem either too general or too limited, the Surgical Fear Questionnaire (SFQ) was developed. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the SFQ. Methods: Based on existing literature and expert consultation the ten-item SFQ was composed. Data on the SFQ were obtained from 5 prospective studies (N = 3233) in inpatient or day surgery patients. These data were used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reliability analysis and validity analysis. Results: EFA in Study 1 and 2 revealed a two-factor structure with one factor associated with fear of the short-term consequences of surgery (SFQ-s, item 1-4) and the other factor with fear of the long-term consequences of surgery (SFQ-l, item 5-10). However, in both studies two items of the SFQ-l had low factor loadings. Therefore in Study 3 and 4 the 2-factor structure was tested and confirmed by CFA in an eight-item version of the SFQ. Across all studies significant correlations of the SFQ with pain catastrophizing, state anxiety, and preoperative pain intensity indicated good convergent validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was between 0.765-0.920 (SFQ-total), 0.766-0.877 (SFQ-s), and 0.628-0.899 (SFQ-l). The SFQ proved to be sensitive to detect differences based on age, sex, education level, employment status and preoperative pain intensity. Discussion: The SFQ is a valid and reliable eight-item index of surgical fear consisting of two subscales: fear of the short-term consequences of surgery and fear of the long-term consequences.This study was conducted with departmental funding and supported by a grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (Zon-MW, http://www.zonmw.nl/en/), grant no. 110000007. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

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