48,772 research outputs found

    Lunar heat-flow experiment: Long term temperature observations on the lunar surface at Apollo sites 15 and 17

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    Several investigators of the Apollo lunar experiments have observed gradual increases in the mean temperatures recorded by various surface thermometers. Similar effects were noticed in the temperatures of the thermometers of the Apollo 15 and 17 Heat Flow Experiments. An analysis of the long term temperature histories of the heat flow experiment thermometers is presented. These data show that no change in mean surface temperature at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites has occurred, and suggest that the slow increase in mean temperatures of thermometers in the electronics housing are due to changes in radiative properties of the housing's surfaces

    Development of a global pollution model for CO, CH4, and CH2O

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    The current status of a global pollution model for carbon monoxide, methane, and formaldehyde is described. The physico-chemical action is considered of these three pollutants in the troposphere. This geographic restriction is convenient since the tropopause provides a natural boundary across which little transport occurs. The data on sources and sinks for these pollutants is based on available information and assumptions relative to the major man-made and natural contributions. The distributions and concentrations of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere are interrelated by the chemical reactions in which they participate. A chemical kinetic model based on the pseudo-steady state approximation for the intermediate species was developed to account for these reactions. The numerical procedure used to mathematically describe the pollution transport is a mass conservative scheme employing an integral flux approach

    Pear-shaped lesion of the fossa of Rosenmüller

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    Retention cyst of the pharyngeal mucosal space is an accumulation of trapped mucous in the mucosa or adenoids of the pharynx. It is a benign lesion, often seen on routine imaging of the head and spine. It is typically a simple cyst originating from the pharyngeal mucosa, without invasion of the surrounding structures. It is important not to misinterpret a retention cyst as a malignant tumor. Patients are usually asymptomatic and do not need treatment

    Laser gain measurements at 193 nm in a small discharge cell containing ArF excimer laser gas mixtures

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    Spatial and temporal gain profiles as well as the peak net gain at 193 nm have been measured in X-ray preionized discharges excited by a single pulse electrical system working in the charge transfer mode. Ar- and F2-containing laser gas mixtures with He or Ne as a buffer gas have been used. With a pumping pulse duration of ~ 100 ns (FWHM) and a specific peak power deposition of ~ 1 MW cm-3 bar-1 in a gas mixture containing F2 : Ar : He (0.1%:5%:94.9%), at 2 bar total pressure, a very high peak net gain coefficient of ~30% cm-1 was measured in the gas discharge. The FWHM of the gain waveform was ~ 60 n

    Computing Functions of Random Variables via Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Representations

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    We describe a method to perform functional operations on probability distributions of random variables. The method uses reproducing kernel Hilbert space representations of probability distributions, and it is applicable to all operations which can be applied to points drawn from the respective distributions. We refer to our approach as {\em kernel probabilistic programming}. We illustrate it on synthetic data, and show how it can be used for nonparametric structural equation models, with an application to causal inference

    An algorithm to generate input data from meteorological and space shuttle observations to validate a CH4-CO model

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    Objective procedures to analyze data from meteorological and space shuttle observations to validate a three dimensional model were investigated. The transport and chemistry of carbon monoxide and methane in the troposphere were studied. Four aspects were examined: (1) detailed evaluation of the variational calculus procedure, with the equation of continuity as a strong constraint, for adjustment of global tropospheric wind fields; (2) reduction of the National Meteorological Center (NMC) data tapes for data input to the OSTA-1/MAPS Experiment; (3) interpolation of the NMC Data for input to the CH4-CO model; and (4) temporal and spatial interpolation procedures of the CO measurements from the OSTA-1/MAPS Experiment to generate usable contours of the data

    Spectroscopy of Four Cataclysmic Variables with Periods above 7 Hours

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    We present spectroscopy of four cataclysmic variables. Using radial velocity measurements, we find orbital periods for the first time. The stars and their periods are GY Hya, 0.347230(9) d; SDSS J204448-045929, 1.68(1) d; V392 Hya, 0.324952(5) d; and RX J1951.7+3716, 0.492(1) d. We also detect the spectra of the secondary stars, estimate their spectral types, and derive distances based on surface brightness and Roche lobe constraints.Comment: 22 pages, 3 figures, 5 tables, to be published in December 2006 PAS

    Multi-objective/loading optimization for rotating composite flexbeams

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    With the evolution of advanced composites, the feasibility of designing bearingless rotor systems for high speed, demanding maneuver envelopes, and high aircraft gross weights has become a reality. These systems eliminate the need for hinges and heavily loaded bearings by incorporating a composite flexbeam structure which accommodates flapping, lead-lag, and feathering motions by bending and twisting while reacting full blade centrifugal force. The flight characteristics of a bearingless rotor system are largely dependent on hub design, and the principal element in this type of system is the composite flexbeam. As in any hub design, trade off studies must be performed in order to optimize performance, dynamics (stability), handling qualities, and stresses. However, since the flexbeam structure is the primary component which will determine the balance of these characteristics, its design and fabrication are not straightforward. It was concluded that: pitchcase and snubber damper representations are required in the flexbeam model for proper sizing resulting from dynamic requirements; optimization is necessary for flexbeam design, since it reduces the design iteration time and results in an improved design; and inclusion of multiple flight conditions and their corresponding fatigue allowables is necessary for the optimization procedure
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