496 research outputs found

    Kako budu─çi stru─Źnjaci u sportu, tjelovje┼żbi i tjelesnome odgoju percipiraju tjelesni izgled pretile djece

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    Anti-fat bias has been previously identified amongst practising obesity health care specialists, physical education (PE) teachers and students of exercise science and PE in samples in the USA and New Zealand. The present research investigated the perceptions of the physical self of ÔÇśfatÔÇÖ versus ÔÇśnormal-weightÔÇÖ children held by 167 students studying sport exercise and PE related programmes in higher education in England. Onesample t-tests identified that the sample held negative perceptions towards ÔÇśfatÔÇÖ children (identified by subscale mean scores that were significantly different from the subscale mean of 2.5 that would identify equivocal perception between ÔÇśfatÔÇÖ and ÔÇśnormal-weightÔÇÖ children) on five of the six subscales of an adapted version of the Children & Youth Physical Self Perception Profile (CONDITION 1.52┬▒.49; BODY 1.63┬▒.43; PHYSICAL SELF-WORTH 1.79┬▒.47; SPORT 1.88┬▒.45; GLOBAL SELF-ESTEEM 2.10┬▒.50, all p<.01; STRENGTH 2.48┬▒.52, p=.67). Such results are indicative of the obesity discourse that currently prevails within PE and sport professions; a discourse constructed, arguably, on misleading foundations. Obesity awareness training is, therefore, required in such trainee exercise science, sport and PE populations. Pedagogical approaches espoused during programmes of study ought to emphasize personal meaning, personal reference and childcenteredness so that such approaches are more likely to be employed in their future professional practice.Predrasude prema pretilim ljudima utvr─Ĺene su kod specijalista zdravstvene skrbi koji se bave pretilo┼í─çu, kod profesora tjelesne i zdravstvene kulture te studenata kineziologije u SAD-u i Novom Zelandu. Cilj provedenog istra┼żivanja bio je utvrditi percepcije tjelesnog izgleda ÔÇťdebeleÔÇŁ u odnosu na djecu ÔÇťnormalne te┼żineÔÇŁ kod 167 studenata kineziologije (sporta, vje┼żbanja i fizi─Źke kulture) u Engleskoj. Rezultati t-testova su pokazali da su ispitanici imali negativnu percepciju pretile djece (utvr─Ĺeno srednjim vrijednostima podljestvice koje su se statisti─Źki zna─Źajno razlikovale od njezine aritmeti─Źke sredine (2,5) koja bi potvrdila jednaku percepciju pretile djece i djece normalne te┼żine), na pet od ukupno ┼íest podljestvica adaptirane verzije upitnika Children & Youth Physical Self Perception Profile (kondicijska pripremljenost 1.52┬▒.49; slika tijela 1.63┬▒.43; tjelesno samovrednovanje 1.79┬▒.47; sportska kompetencija 1.88┬▒.45; op─çe samopouzdanje 2.10┬▒.50, svi na razini zna─Źajnosti p<.01; te tjelesna jakost i snaga 2.48┬▒.52, p=.67). Dobiveni rezultati su indikativni za odnos prema pretilim osobama koji trenutno prevladava kod profesionalnih djelatnika u sportu i tjelesnoj i zdravstvenoj kulturi, a koji je nedvojbeno izgra─Ĺen na pogre┼ínim temeljima. Stoga je za populacije pripravnika u kineziologiji, sportu i tjelesnoj i zdravstvenoj kulturi potrebna edukacija i razvoj svijesti o pretilosti. Pedago┼íki pristupi koji se provode u okviru studijskih programa trebali bi naglasiti osobnost pojedinca, te osobni odnos i orijentaciju prema djetetu kako bi takvi pristupi i takav odnos prema djeci bili i primijenjeni u budu─çem profesionalnom radu sportskih stru─Źnjaka i znanstvenika

    A New Reliable Performance Analysis Template for Quantifying Action Variables in Elite MenÔÇÖs Wheelchair Basketball

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    This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable performance analysis template for quantifying team action variables in elite menÔÇÖs wheelchair basketball. First action variables and operational definitions were identified by the authors and verified by an expert panel of wheelchair basketball coaching staff in order to establish expert validity. A total of 109 action variable were then placed into 17 agreed Categorical Predictor Variable categories. The action variables were then used to develop a computerised performance analysis template for post-event analysis. Each possession (n=200) from an international menÔÇÖs wheelchair basketball game was analysed by the first author on two occasions for assessment of intra-observer reliability and by a coach and a performance analyst for inter-observer reliability. Percentage error and Weighted Kappa coefficients were calculated to compare the levels of error and agreement for each action variable. Intra-observer reliability demonstrated perfect or almost perfect agreement (<K0.980) and low percentage error values (<1.50%) for the 109 action variables within the 17 categories. Inter-observer reliability demonstrated perfect or almost perfect agreement (<K0.974) and low percentage error values (<3.00%) for the 109 action variables within the 17 categories. The template should be used in future for obtaining valid and reliable data in elite menÔÇÖs wheelchair basketball

    Sport und Sportunterricht in Ungarischen Schulen nach den politischen Ver├Ąnderungsprozessen in den 1990er Jahren

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    Across central and eastern Europe, countries entered into a political transition period typified by democratic freedom and idealism and in educational reforms by conceptual reorientations based on ideas of humanism and liberalisation. This article focuses on school physical education and sport in Hungary after the political transition period of the 1990s. Specifically, it highlights issues relating to curriculum changes, the conceptual modernisation of school physical education and sport, the emergence of a Hungarian national curriculum and suggests that schools and physical education practitioners have critical roles in promoting and fostering participation in physical and sporting activity through curricular and extracurricular programmes for essential full lifespan engagement.Ranih 1990-ih zemlje srednje i isto─Źne Europe u┼íle su u period politi─Źke tranzicije obilje┼żen reformama na podru─Źju edukacije koje su obuhva─çale konceptualna preusmjeravanja utemeljena na idejama humanizma i liberalizma, ┼íto je bilo prevedeno u idealisti─Źki kurikulum i principe planiranja. Me─Ĺutim, realnost implementiranja tih ÔÇśprincipaÔÇÖ ignorirala je potrebna financijska ulaganja, nove pedago┼íke i didakti─Źke intervencije i relevantnu infrastrukturu neophodnu za realizaciju. Stoga, u godinama politi─Źke tranzicije, usprkos vladinim ohrabrenjima ve-zanima uz tjelesni odgoj kao kurikularni zahtjev, tjelesni je odgoj postao podcijenjeni predmet; vi┼ía ┼íkolska uprava pokazala je za njega malo interesa, njegov doprinos op─çem razvoju u─Źenika nije bio dovoljno cijenjen, a profesori tjelesnog odgoja smatrali su se inferiornima, manje sposobnima i vje┼ítim u brojnim srednje- i isto─Źnoeuropskim zemljama. Ovaj rad obra─Ĺuje status tjelesnog odgoja i sporta u ┼íkolama u Ma─Ĺarskoj nakon perioda politi─Źke tranzicije iz 1990-ih godina. Politi─Źka tranzicija koja slijedi nakon slobodnih izbora u Ma─Ĺarskoj 1990. godine postavila je zahtjev za novim dru┼ítvenim vrijednostima u reorganiziranom dru┼ítvu. Kako bi se prilagodio tim zahtjevima, cjelokupni edukacijski sustav morao se reformirati kroz dr┼żavnu politiku obnove i edukacijske zakone. Postupno pro┼íiren kurikulum poja─Źano je naglasio svestranu, dobro uravnote┼żenu edukaciju i razvoj pozitivnih stavova u okru┼żenju ekonomskog, politi─Źkog, znanstvenog, tehni─Źkog, dru┼ítvenog i moralnog razvoja. Takozvani bipolarni (centralni i lokalni) model reguliranja sadr┼żaja kurikuluma nastao je kao rezultat nacionalnih i inozemnih utjecaja. Tjelesni odgoj i sport identificiran je kao jedno od deset sredi┼ínjih podru─Źja edukacije va┼żnih za zadovoljavanje zahtjeva ÔÇśnove ereÔÇÖ. Njegova je uloga neophodna i jedinstvena u sustavu kulture, a ima izravan utjecaj na tjelesni razvoj u─Źenika te daje povoljnu priliku za razvoj motori─Źkih vje┼ítina i sposobnosti. Njegova se klju─Źna uloga tako─Ĺer prote┼że u podru─Źje aktivnog i redovitog tjelesnog vje┼żbanja, kao i nu┼żnosti sporta u vrijednosnom sustavu u─Źenika, ─Źime se promovira zdrav stil ┼żivota i njeguje tjelesna, mentalna i emocionalna edukacija. Istodobno, novi pristup evaluaciji zamijenio je jednodimenzionalnu, prema u─Źitelju usmjerenu i autoritarnu ocjenu onom utemeljenom na nizu interakcija u─Źenika i profesora: profesori i u─Źenici partneri su u tom procesu. Godine 1995. pokrenut Nacionalni sredi┼ínji kurikulum (NCC) danas odre─Ĺuje rad u ┼íkolama, uklju─Źuju─çi i tjelesni odgoj i sport, kao i njegov nastavni plan i program. NCC daje primjere pro┼íirenih sadr┼żaja nacionalnog standarda obrazovanja, karakteristika kojega je vidljiva na njegove tri ÔÇśrazineÔÇÖ ciljeva. Na prvoj razini su zajedni─Źki predmeti povezani s cijelim odgojno-obrazovnim sustavom. Ispred svakog edukacijskog polja ili podru─Źja nalaze se op─çi razvojni ciljevi. U tjelesnom odgoju i sportu ti su ciljevi definirani za dob od 1-6 i 7-10 godina, a obuhva─çaju zdravlje, u─Źenje kretnih struktura, motori─Źke sposobnosti, odr┼żavanje potrebe za tjelesnim vje┼żbanjem i prilago─Ĺen tjelesni odgoj. Tri su razine ciljeva zaokru┼żene pojedina─Źnim ciljevima, koji su podijeljeni na tri dijela: znanje, vje┼ítine i minimalna kompetentnost. Nastavni plan tjelesnog odgoja sastoji se od razli─Źitih komponenata: organizacijske vje┼żbe (vje┼żbe postrojavanja), pripremne, bazi─Źne i preventivne vje┼żbe, relaksacija; osnovne atletske vje┼żbe; gimnasti─Źke vje┼żbe; ritmi─Źka gimnastika, vje┼żbe aerobike (samo za djevojke); sportske igre (rukomet, ko┼íarka, nogomet, odbojka); rekreacijske aktivnosti i aktivnosti na otvorenom; samoobrana i borila─Źke vje┼ítine te plivanje. Pojedina─Źni ciljevi specifi─Źnog podru─Źja tako─Ĺer uklju─Źuju i temeljna znanja nu┼żna za dono┼íenje odluka i izvr┼íavanje zadataka. Minimalne kompetencije opisuju osnovnu razinu znanja, vje┼ítina i op─çih sposobnosti potrebnih za uspje┼ían razvoj u─Źenika. U nekim je ┼íkolama odvojeno puno vremena za nastavu tjelesnog odgoja - 225 minuta tjedno (pet sati tjedno uklju─Źuju─çi i izvannastavne aktivnosti). Me─Ĺutim, u posljednjih petnaest godina, u mnogim ma─Ĺarskim ┼íkolama broj sati nastave reduciran je na oko 2,5 sata tjedno. Nekoliko faktora prije─Źi napredak tjelesnog odgoja i sporta u Ma─Ĺarskoj. Dr┼żavna politika i zakonske odredbe predvi─Ĺaju samo ograni─Źeni vremenski okvir za postizanje ambicioznih ciljeva i slo┼żenih zadataka sadr┼żanih u nastavnom planu i programu. Sljede─çi problem vezan je za na-─Źin mi┼íljenja starijih generacija ma─Ĺarskih profesora i ┼íkolskih institucija - to je na─Źin razmi┼íljanja previ┼íe kontroliranog okru┼żenja pro┼ílog ÔÇśsocijalisti─ŹkogÔÇÖ upravljanja i profesori ─Źekaju ÔÇťodozgoÔÇŁ detaljniji plan i program od onoga u NCC-u, a mnogima od njih nedostaje iskustva i znanja za popunjavanje praznina izme─Ĺu NCC-a i njihovih izvedbenih planova i programa, kao i potrebne pedago┼íke i didakti─Źke intervencijske vje┼ítine za pou─Źavanje i situacijsko u─Źenje. Tre─çi se problem ti─Źe neadekvatnosti sportskih objekata i opreme u Ma─Ĺarskoj - procijenjen je nedostatak od oko 600 sportskih dvorana u ┼íkolama. Tako─Ĺer, dodatni su problemi vezani uz ma─Ĺarsko javno obrazovanje, kao ┼íto je nedovoljno financiranje i profesori s financijskim pote┼íko─çama zbog niskih primanja. Kao i mnoge druge zemlje, relevantni ma─Ĺarski vladini i nevladini autoriteti trebali bi u suradni─Źkom odnosu uzeti u obzir razvoj ÔÇśbazi─Źnog modela potrebaÔÇÖ, u kojemu su identificirani postoje─çi nedostaci i u kojem su aktivnosti tjelesnog odgoja prisutne i integrirane u ukupnu obrazovnu politiku. Za ispunjavanje tih bazi─Źnih potreba nu┼żni su kvalitetni edukacijski programi, dostupni objekti i oprema, ali i adekvatno pla─çeni kvalificirani/iskusni kadrovi s relevantnim znanjem, vje┼ítinama i kompetencijama, kao i mogu─çnosti oboga─çivanja kompetencija kontinuiranim profesionalnim razvojem.In den fr├╝hen 1990er Jahren fanden in mehreren L├Ąndern in Zentral- und Osteuropa politische Ver├Ąnderungsprozesse statt. Diese f├╝hrten zur demokratischen Freiheit und zu Reformen des Erziehungssystems, die sich wieder an den Ideen und Idealen der Freiheit und des Humanismus orientierten. Dieser Beitrag besch├Ąftigt sich mit der Entwicklung des Sports und des Sportunterrichts in Ungarn nach diesen poli-tischen Ver├Ąnderungsprozessen in den 1990er Jahren. Es werden besonders die Aspekte hervorgehoben, die mit den allgemeinen unterrichtlichen Ver├Ąnderungsprozessen, der Modernisierung des Sports und des Sportunterrichts und der Entwicklung eines nationalen ungarischen Curriculums verbunden sind. In dem Artikel wird betont, dass Schulen und Schulsportlehrer Verantwortung tragen f├╝r die F├Ârderung und Unterst├╝tzung einer regelm├Ą├čigen Teilnahmen von Kindern und Jugendlichen an Bewegungs- und Sportaktivit├Ąten im Rahmen der unterrichtlichen und au├čerunterrichtlichen Ma├čnahmen, die zu einem lebenslangen Sporttreiben beitragen sollen

    Sport und Sportunterricht in Ungarischen Schulen nach den politischen Ver├Ąnderungsprozessen in den 1990er Jahren

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    Across central and eastern Europe, countries entered into a political transition period typified by democratic freedom and idealism and in educational reforms by conceptual reorientations based on ideas of humanism and liberalisation. This article focuses on school physical education and sport in Hungary after the political transition period of the 1990s. Specifically, it highlights issues relating to curriculum changes, the conceptual modernisation of school physical education and sport, the emergence of a Hungarian national curriculum and suggests that schools and physical education practitioners have critical roles in promoting and fostering participation in physical and sporting activity through curricular and extracurricular programmes for essential full lifespan engagement.Ranih 1990-ih zemlje srednje i isto─Źne Europe u┼íle su u period politi─Źke tranzicije obilje┼żen reformama na podru─Źju edukacije koje su obuhva─çale konceptualna preusmjeravanja utemeljena na idejama humanizma i liberalizma, ┼íto je bilo prevedeno u idealisti─Źki kurikulum i principe planiranja. Me─Ĺutim, realnost implementiranja tih ÔÇśprincipaÔÇÖ ignorirala je potrebna financijska ulaganja, nove pedago┼íke i didakti─Źke intervencije i relevantnu infrastrukturu neophodnu za realizaciju. Stoga, u godinama politi─Źke tranzicije, usprkos vladinim ohrabrenjima ve-zanima uz tjelesni odgoj kao kurikularni zahtjev, tjelesni je odgoj postao podcijenjeni predmet; vi┼ía ┼íkolska uprava pokazala je za njega malo interesa, njegov doprinos op─çem razvoju u─Źenika nije bio dovoljno cijenjen, a profesori tjelesnog odgoja smatrali su se inferiornima, manje sposobnima i vje┼ítim u brojnim srednje- i isto─Źnoeuropskim zemljama. Ovaj rad obra─Ĺuje status tjelesnog odgoja i sporta u ┼íkolama u Ma─Ĺarskoj nakon perioda politi─Źke tranzicije iz 1990-ih godina. Politi─Źka tranzicija koja slijedi nakon slobodnih izbora u Ma─Ĺarskoj 1990. godine postavila je zahtjev za novim dru┼ítvenim vrijednostima u reorganiziranom dru┼ítvu. Kako bi se prilagodio tim zahtjevima, cjelokupni edukacijski sustav morao se reformirati kroz dr┼żavnu politiku obnove i edukacijske zakone. Postupno pro┼íiren kurikulum poja─Źano je naglasio svestranu, dobro uravnote┼żenu edukaciju i razvoj pozitivnih stavova u okru┼żenju ekonomskog, politi─Źkog, znanstvenog, tehni─Źkog, dru┼ítvenog i moralnog razvoja. Takozvani bipolarni (centralni i lokalni) model reguliranja sadr┼żaja kurikuluma nastao je kao rezultat nacionalnih i inozemnih utjecaja. Tjelesni odgoj i sport identificiran je kao jedno od deset sredi┼ínjih podru─Źja edukacije va┼żnih za zadovoljavanje zahtjeva ÔÇśnove ereÔÇÖ. Njegova je uloga neophodna i jedinstvena u sustavu kulture, a ima izravan utjecaj na tjelesni razvoj u─Źenika te daje povoljnu priliku za razvoj motori─Źkih vje┼ítina i sposobnosti. Njegova se klju─Źna uloga tako─Ĺer prote┼że u podru─Źje aktivnog i redovitog tjelesnog vje┼żbanja, kao i nu┼żnosti sporta u vrijednosnom sustavu u─Źenika, ─Źime se promovira zdrav stil ┼żivota i njeguje tjelesna, mentalna i emocionalna edukacija. Istodobno, novi pristup evaluaciji zamijenio je jednodimenzionalnu, prema u─Źitelju usmjerenu i autoritarnu ocjenu onom utemeljenom na nizu interakcija u─Źenika i profesora: profesori i u─Źenici partneri su u tom procesu. Godine 1995. pokrenut Nacionalni sredi┼ínji kurikulum (NCC) danas odre─Ĺuje rad u ┼íkolama, uklju─Źuju─çi i tjelesni odgoj i sport, kao i njegov nastavni plan i program. NCC daje primjere pro┼íirenih sadr┼żaja nacionalnog standarda obrazovanja, karakteristika kojega je vidljiva na njegove tri ÔÇśrazineÔÇÖ ciljeva. Na prvoj razini su zajedni─Źki predmeti povezani s cijelim odgojno-obrazovnim sustavom. Ispred svakog edukacijskog polja ili podru─Źja nalaze se op─çi razvojni ciljevi. U tjelesnom odgoju i sportu ti su ciljevi definirani za dob od 1-6 i 7-10 godina, a obuhva─çaju zdravlje, u─Źenje kretnih struktura, motori─Źke sposobnosti, odr┼żavanje potrebe za tjelesnim vje┼żbanjem i prilago─Ĺen tjelesni odgoj. Tri su razine ciljeva zaokru┼żene pojedina─Źnim ciljevima, koji su podijeljeni na tri dijela: znanje, vje┼ítine i minimalna kompetentnost. Nastavni plan tjelesnog odgoja sastoji se od razli─Źitih komponenata: organizacijske vje┼żbe (vje┼żbe postrojavanja), pripremne, bazi─Źne i preventivne vje┼żbe, relaksacija; osnovne atletske vje┼żbe; gimnasti─Źke vje┼żbe; ritmi─Źka gimnastika, vje┼żbe aerobike (samo za djevojke); sportske igre (rukomet, ko┼íarka, nogomet, odbojka); rekreacijske aktivnosti i aktivnosti na otvorenom; samoobrana i borila─Źke vje┼ítine te plivanje. Pojedina─Źni ciljevi specifi─Źnog podru─Źja tako─Ĺer uklju─Źuju i temeljna znanja nu┼żna za dono┼íenje odluka i izvr┼íavanje zadataka. Minimalne kompetencije opisuju osnovnu razinu znanja, vje┼ítina i op─çih sposobnosti potrebnih za uspje┼ían razvoj u─Źenika. U nekim je ┼íkolama odvojeno puno vremena za nastavu tjelesnog odgoja - 225 minuta tjedno (pet sati tjedno uklju─Źuju─çi i izvannastavne aktivnosti). Me─Ĺutim, u posljednjih petnaest godina, u mnogim ma─Ĺarskim ┼íkolama broj sati nastave reduciran je na oko 2,5 sata tjedno. Nekoliko faktora prije─Źi napredak tjelesnog odgoja i sporta u Ma─Ĺarskoj. Dr┼żavna politika i zakonske odredbe predvi─Ĺaju samo ograni─Źeni vremenski okvir za postizanje ambicioznih ciljeva i slo┼żenih zadataka sadr┼żanih u nastavnom planu i programu. Sljede─çi problem vezan je za na-─Źin mi┼íljenja starijih generacija ma─Ĺarskih profesora i ┼íkolskih institucija - to je na─Źin razmi┼íljanja previ┼íe kontroliranog okru┼żenja pro┼ílog ÔÇśsocijalisti─ŹkogÔÇÖ upravljanja i profesori ─Źekaju ÔÇťodozgoÔÇŁ detaljniji plan i program od onoga u NCC-u, a mnogima od njih nedostaje iskustva i znanja za popunjavanje praznina izme─Ĺu NCC-a i njihovih izvedbenih planova i programa, kao i potrebne pedago┼íke i didakti─Źke intervencijske vje┼ítine za pou─Źavanje i situacijsko u─Źenje. Tre─çi se problem ti─Źe neadekvatnosti sportskih objekata i opreme u Ma─Ĺarskoj - procijenjen je nedostatak od oko 600 sportskih dvorana u ┼íkolama. Tako─Ĺer, dodatni su problemi vezani uz ma─Ĺarsko javno obrazovanje, kao ┼íto je nedovoljno financiranje i profesori s financijskim pote┼íko─çama zbog niskih primanja. Kao i mnoge druge zemlje, relevantni ma─Ĺarski vladini i nevladini autoriteti trebali bi u suradni─Źkom odnosu uzeti u obzir razvoj ÔÇśbazi─Źnog modela potrebaÔÇÖ, u kojemu su identificirani postoje─çi nedostaci i u kojem su aktivnosti tjelesnog odgoja prisutne i integrirane u ukupnu obrazovnu politiku. Za ispunjavanje tih bazi─Źnih potreba nu┼żni su kvalitetni edukacijski programi, dostupni objekti i oprema, ali i adekvatno pla─çeni kvalificirani/iskusni kadrovi s relevantnim znanjem, vje┼ítinama i kompetencijama, kao i mogu─çnosti oboga─çivanja kompetencija kontinuiranim profesionalnim razvojem.In den fr├╝hen 1990er Jahren fanden in mehreren L├Ąndern in Zentral- und Osteuropa politische Ver├Ąnderungsprozesse statt. Diese f├╝hrten zur demokratischen Freiheit und zu Reformen des Erziehungssystems, die sich wieder an den Ideen und Idealen der Freiheit und des Humanismus orientierten. Dieser Beitrag besch├Ąftigt sich mit der Entwicklung des Sports und des Sportunterrichts in Ungarn nach diesen poli-tischen Ver├Ąnderungsprozessen in den 1990er Jahren. Es werden besonders die Aspekte hervorgehoben, die mit den allgemeinen unterrichtlichen Ver├Ąnderungsprozessen, der Modernisierung des Sports und des Sportunterrichts und der Entwicklung eines nationalen ungarischen Curriculums verbunden sind. In dem Artikel wird betont, dass Schulen und Schulsportlehrer Verantwortung tragen f├╝r die F├Ârderung und Unterst├╝tzung einer regelm├Ą├čigen Teilnahmen von Kindern und Jugendlichen an Bewegungs- und Sportaktivit├Ąten im Rahmen der unterrichtlichen und au├čerunterrichtlichen Ma├čnahmen, die zu einem lebenslangen Sporttreiben beitragen sollen

    Considerations Perceived by Coaches as Specific to Coaching Elite WomenÔÇÖs Soccer Teams

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    This study investigated challenges perceived by coaches when working with elite womenÔÇÖs soccer teams. Six men and four women coaches with experience in the first Norwegian League or Norwegian national team participated. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, and the data was analyzed using thematic interpretational analysis. Participants identified professionalism, early-career termination, mental characteristics, intrateam communication, romantic relationships, access to the locker rooms (men only), and team selection (women only) as the specific challenges they face when coaching these teams. The findings are discussed in relation to ensuring that good performance and development are achieved when coaching elite womenÔÇÖs soccer teams and helping future coaches optimize their coaching techniques when working with elite women players

    The effect of pedometer step goal, feedback and self-monitoring interventions on accelerometer-measured physical activity in children

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    This study assessed the utility of 3-week goal-setting, self-monitoring and step-feedback pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity (PA) in children, and the relative impact of individual and group-standardised goals. Three classes of primary school children (n = 68) were randomised to: (a) individual-standardised goal (IS), (b) group-standardised goal (GS) or (c) open pedometer control (CON) groups. PA was assessed via accelerometry (baseline and end-point). There were no main effects for study group, but there was an interaction between time and group for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with MVPA time change differing between IS and CON, as MVPA increased in IS but decreased in CON. Mean plots showed MVPA increased in less-active children allocated IS goals, but decreased in GS children. MVPA in more-active children did not change in IS, but declined in GS and CON. Goal-setting, self-monitoring and step-feedback pedometer interventions did not modify PA. Individual-standardised goals may, however, have utility due to mitigating the decline in MVPA in more-active and increasing MVPA in less-active children

    Sprinkler irrigation system field checklist

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    This recommendation came out of a noted need by the ASABE NRES-241 sprinkler irrigation committee in 2019 committee meeting for a simple checklist to quickly educate new center pivot operators on what to look for to determine if a center pivot is operating at designed performance. This checklist is meant to be simple and user friendly. Simple and clear language was incorporated purposefully. It is intended as a quick guide to new irrigators, or as a reminder to more experienced irrigators as to what to check to ensure efficient and effective center pivot and linear move irrigation system operation for optimal performance. Different checklists were developed for various frequencies of system evaluation. This was done as a cooperative project of the sprinkler irrigation committee members as an outcome of this stated need. It is hoped that this checklist can be adapted and used by growers, consultants, and other irrigators

    Device-based interventions that seek to restore bilateral and binaural hearing in adults with single-sided deafness: a conceptual analysis

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    Single-sided deafness (SSD) is defined by severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear only. This article outlines the etiologies and associated functional, psychological, social, and other consequences of SSD in adulthood. The available hearing aids and auditory implants for SSD are described, alongside an overview of the methods adopted by clinicians and researchers to define and measure their benefits and harms. Current concepts and issues to consider in the field of rerouting and restoring device-based interventions are explored. A contemporary overview of the current challenges in outcome measurement of all available interventions in the field is also provided, and cost effectiveness of SSD interventions is discussed briefly. This article therefore proves a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on interventions and outcome measurement for SSD for those interested or actively working in the field, and recommendations for future trials. These include recommendations on the timescale of measurements, long-term benefits (or harms), cost utility, and the use of the internationally agreed core outcome domain set for all future clinical trials of device-based interventions for SSD

    Psychometric Evaluation of the Norwegian Versions of the Modified Group Environment Questionnaire and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire

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    This study aimed to translate the modified Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire (YSEQ) into Norwegian, examine the factor structure and reliability of the scales through independent clusters model confirmatory factor analysis (ICM-CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and examine differential item functioning (DIF) as a function of sex. Three-hundred-and-thirty-three athletes (M(SD)age = 18.7(2.60) years; 33% females) completed the GEQ. Three-hundred-and-three athletes (M(SD)age = 15.0(1.48) years; 26% females) completed the YSEQ. Results indicated acceptable fit indices for a four-factor, a second-order two-factor (task and social), and a second order one-factor ESEM model for the GEQ. Cross-loadings and high latent factor correlations are issues in need of attention. The study supported the structural validity and reliability of the Norwegian YSEQ, with no major differences between the ICM-CFA and ESEM. No evidence of DIF as a function of sex was identified in either of the scales

    Development and Initial Validation of the Humor Climate in Sport Scale Running Head: Humor climate in sport

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    In sport teams, humor is an essential element that influences communication processes, and plays an important role in group dynamics. Despite this, no current instrument is presented in the literature to measure humor climate in sport teams. Therefore, the current study presents the development and initial validation of the Humor Climate in Sport Scale (HCSS). The aim was to assess content, structural and concurrent validity of the developed instrument, and to examine differential item functioning (DIF) as a function of sex. Three different phases were completed in this study. The first phase involved focus groups (n = 5) that explored humor as communication in a team sport context. In phase 2, information from the focus groups was used to create a pool of potential items for the questionnaire. Two discussion groups with sport science students contributed to the development of 80 potential items, that two different expert groups then assessed for item quality. The final version of the instrument after this phase contained 14 items, representing three different humor dimensions. In phase 3, two independent samples with a total number of 776 participants were recruited for the psychometric evaluation of the instrument. EFA, ICM-CFA, and ESEM analysis were performed, supporting a three-factor structure with positive humor, negative humor in-group, and negative humor out-group. In addition, partial DIF as a function of sex on the negative humor dimensions was found, indicating differences in how male and female interpret the negative humor items. The findings in the current study expand our understanding of humor in sport teams and may be a starting point for further research on humor climate in sport teams and its role in group function
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