449 research outputs found

    Evaluation of the in-situ Performance of Neutron Detectors based on EJ-426 Scintillator Screens for Spent Fuel Characterization

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    The reliable detection of neutrons in a harsh gamma-ray environment is an important aspect of establishing non-destructive methods for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel. In this study, we present results from extended in-situ monitoring of detector systems consisting of commercially available components: EJ-426, a 6^6Li-enriched solid-state scintillator material sensitive to thermal neutrons, and two different types of Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Over the period of eight months, these detectors were operated in close vicinity to spent nuclear fuel stored at the interim storage facility CLAB, Oskarshamn, Sweden. At the measurement position the detectors were continuously exposed to an estimated neutron flux of approx. 280 n/s ‚čÖ\cdot cm2^2 and a gamma-ray dose rate of approx. 6 Sv/h. Using offline software algorithms, neutron pulses were identified in the data. Over the entire investigated dose range of up to 35 kGr, the detector systems were functioning and were delivering detectable neutron signals. Their performance as measured by the number of identified neutrons degrades down to about 30% of the initial value. Investigations of the irradiated components suggest that this degradation is a result of reduced optical transparency of the involved materials as well as a reduction of PMT gain due to the continuous high currents. Increasing the gain of the PMT through step-ups of the applied high voltage allowed to partially compensate for this loss in detection sensitivity. The integrated neutron fluence during the measurement was experimentally verified to be in the order of 5‚čÖ1095 \cdot 10^9 n/cm2^2. The results were interpreted with the help of MCNP6.2 simulations of the setup and the neutron flux

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation