5,811 research outputs found

    The cognitive revolution in Europe: taking the developmental perspective seriously

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    We can do little but to share Miller’s view [1] that cognitive psychology was born in the 1950s. However, his article distorts the role of psychology in the birth of cognitive science. On two occasions, Miller proposes that psychology could not play a role in the cognitive revolution because of its narrow focus on behaviorism

    Imported Cases in Continental Chile and Autochthonous In Easter Island

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    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for several arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. The emergence of these viruses’ transmission is possible in places where the vector exists. In Chile, A. aegypti was introduced in the year 2000 to Easter Island, being the responsible of the first dengue outbreak by dengue 1 serotype in the country in 2002. Just recently April 2016 Aedes aegypti has been found in Arica, the northernmost city of the country. On Easter Island, at the beginning of 2014, Zika outbreak was diagnosed with about 170 cases reported

    Effect of detraining on bone and muscle tissue in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury after a period of electrically-stimulated cycling: a small cohort study

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    Objective: To investigate adaptive changes in bone and muscle parameters in the paralysed limbs after de-training or reduced functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced cycling following high-volume FES-cycling in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects: Five subjects with motor-sensory complete SCI (age 38.6 years, lesion duration 11.4 years) were included. Four subjects stopped FES-cycling completely after the training phase whereas one continued reduced FES-cycling (2-3 times/week, for 30min). Methods: Bone and muscle parameters were assessed in the legs using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at six and twelve months after cessation of high-volume FES-cycling. Results: Gains achieved in the distal femur by high-volume FES-cycling were partly maintained at one year of detraining: 73.0% in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), 63.8% in total BMD, 59.4% in bone mineral content and 22.1% in muscle cross-sectional area (CSAmuscle) in the thigh. The subject who continued reduced FES-cycling maintained 96.2% and 95.0% of the previous gain in total and trabecu-lar BMD, and 98.5% in CSAmuscle. Conclusion: Bone and muscle benefits achieved by one year of high-volume FES-cycling are partly preserved after 12 months of detraining whereas reduced cycling maintains bone and muscle mass gained. This suggests that high-volume FES-cycling has clinical relevance for at least 1y after detraining

    Evolution of the mass, size, and star formation rate in high-redshift merging galaxies MIRAGE - A new sample of simulations with detailed stellar feedback

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    We aim at addressing the questions related to galaxy mass assembly through major and minor wet merging processes in the redshift range 1<z<2. A consequent fraction of Milky Way like galaxies are thought to have undergone an unstable clumpy phase at this early stage. Using the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, with a recent physically-motivated implementation of stellar feedback, we build the Merging and Isolated high-Redshift Adaptive mesh refinement Galaxies (MIRAGE) sample. It is composed of 20 mergers and 3 isolated idealized disks simulations with global physical properties in accordance with the 1<z<2 mass complete sample MASSIV. The numerical hydrodynamical resolution reaches 7 parsecs in the smallest Eulerian cells. Our simulations include: star formation, metal line cooling, metallicity advection, and a recent implementation of stellar feedback which encompasses OB-type stars radiative pressure, photo-ionization heating, and supernovae. The initial conditions are set to match the z~2 observations, thanks to a new public code DICE. The numerical resolution allows us to follow the formation and evolution of giant clumps formed in-situ from Jeans instabilities triggered by high initial gas fraction. The star formation history of isolated disks shows stochastic star formation rate, which proceeds from the complex behavior of the giant clumps. Our minor and major gas-rich merger simulations do not trigger starbursts, suggesting a saturation of the star formation in a turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium fed by substantial accretion from the circum-galactic medium. Our simulations are close to the normal regime of the disk-like star formation on a Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram. The mass-size relation and its rate of evolution matches observations, suggesting that the inside-out growth mechanisms of the stellar disk do not necessarily require to be achieved through a cold accretion.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures. Accepted in A&

    Ivy : Cling To Me

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    In order to cope with the highly destructive particle beam of the LHC, the cleaning and collimation system must fulfill very severe requirements. The actuation system of the LHC Collimators is a key element to meet the specifications, particularly in terms of precision and reliability. Each collimator jaw has to be moved with a very high accuracy to place the active surface at the required position with respect to the proton beam; at the same time the system must be adjustable and flexible to adapt to the uncertainties and variations in the beam tuning. In this note the general design of the actuation system for the various collimator designs is presented and particular emphasis is given to the analysis of the torque which the stepper motors must provide to move the jaws in and back and to the dynamical behaviour of the system in the event of malfunctioning when auto-retraction of the jaws is required. In the appendix, details are given on the estimated performances of the actuation system for different collimator types and orientations

    Superconductivity and charge carrier localization in ultrathin La1.85Sr0.15CuO4/La2CuO4\mathbf{{La_{1.85}Sr_{0.15}CuO_4}/{La_2CuO_4}} bilayers

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    La1.85Sr0.15CuO4\mathrm{La_{1.85}Sr_{0.15}CuO_4}/La2CuO4\mathrm{La_2CuO_4} (LSCO15/LCO) bilayers with a precisely controlled thickness of N unit cells (UCs) of the former and M UCs of the latter ([LSCO15\_N/LCO\_M]) were grown on (001)-oriented {\slao} (SLAO) substrates with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space map (RSM) studies confirmed the epitaxial growth of the bilayers and showed that a [LSCO15\_2/LCO\_2] bilayer is fully strained, whereas a [LSCO15\_2/LCO\_7] bilayer is already partially relaxed. The \textit{in situ} monitoring of the growth with reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) revealed that the gas environment during deposition has a surprisingly strong effect on the growth mode and thus on the amount of disorder in the first UC of LSCO15 (or the first two monolayers of LSCO15 containing one CuO2\mathrm{CuO_2} plane each). For samples grown in pure N2O\mathrm{N_2O} gas (growth type-B), the first LSCO15 UC next to the SLAO substrate is strongly disordered. This disorder is strongly reduced if the growth is performed in a mixture of N2O\mathrm{N_2O} and O2\mathrm{O_2} gas (growth type-A). Electric transport measurements confirmed that the first UC of LSCO15 next to the SLAO substrate is highly resistive and shows no sign of superconductivity for growth type-B, whereas it is superconducting for growth type-A. Furthermore, we found, rather surprisingly, that the conductivity of the LSCO15 UC next to the LCO capping layer strongly depends on the thickness of the latter. A LCO capping layer with 7~UCs leads to a strong localization of the charge carriers in the adjacent LSCO15 UC and suppresses superconductivity. The magneto-transport data suggest a similarity with the case of weakly hole doped LSCO single crystals that are in a so-called {"{cluster-spin-glass state}"

    GHASP: an Hα\alpha kinematic survey of spiral galaxies - X. Surface photometry, decompositions and the Tully-Fisher relation in the Rc-band

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    We present Rc-band surface photometry for 170 of the 203 galaxies in GHASP, Gassendi H-Alpha survey of SPirals, a sample of late-type galaxies for which high-resolution Fabry-Perot H{\alpha} maps have previously been obtained. Our data set is constructed by new Rc-band observations taken at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), supplemented with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival data, obtained with the purpose of deriving homogeneous photometric profiles and parameters. Our results include Rc-band surface brightness profiles for 170 galaxies and ugrizugriz profiles for 108 of these objects. We catalogue several parameters of general interest for further reference, such as total magnitude, effective radius and isophotal parameters -- magnitude, position angle, ellipticity and inclination. We also perform a structural decomposition of the surface brightness profiles using a multi-component method in order to separate disks from bulges and bars, and to observe the main scaling relations involving luminosities, sizes and maximum velocities. We determine the Rc-band Tully Fisher relation using maximum velocities derived solely from Hα\alpha rotation curves for a sample of 80 galaxies, resulting in a slope of −8.1±0.5-8.1 \pm 0.5, zero point of −3.0±1.0-3.0 \pm 1.0 and an estimated intrinsic scatter of 0.28±0.070.28 \pm 0.07. We note that, different from the TF-relation in the near-infrared derived for the same sample, no change in the slope of the relation is seen at the low-mass end (for galaxies with Vmax<125V_{max} < 125 km/s). We suggest that this different behaviour of the Tully Fisher relation (with the optical relation being described by a single power-law while the near-infrared by two) may be caused by differences in the stellar mass to light ratio for galaxies with Vmax<125V_{max} < 125 km/s.Comment: 17 pages, 11 figure