1,965 research outputs found

    Molecular detection of carbapenemase-producing genes in referral Enterobacteriaceae in South Africa: A short report

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    Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were sent to a reference laboratory. A proportion of isolates had limited demographic, epidemiological and clinical data available. Organism identification was reconfirmed using reference laboratory methods, and the presence of carbapenemases was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analysed 1 503 significant isolates received for confirmation from the National Health Laboratory Service and some private laboratories during 2012 - 2015 and confirmed one or more carbapenemase-producing genes in 68% of isolates, the most common organism being Klebsiella pneumoniae (60%). The most common carbapenemase genes were blaNDM, followed by blaOXA-48 and its variants. BlaOXA-48 and its variants demonstrated non-susceptibility to ertapenem in 89% of the isolates when analysed by the phenotypic method, and to ceftazidime in 34%. Overall, the detection rate for carbapenemases in K. pneumoniae blood isolates in the public sector was 1.9% during the 4-year period. This report indicates the presence of CPE in SA, and it is important for all healthcare workers to be aware of this major public health threat so that infection prevention and control measures can be implemented to prevent the spread of CPE in healthcare facilities

    Molecular detection of carbapenemase-producing genes in referral Enterobacteriaceae in South Africa: A short report

    Get PDF
    Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were sent to a reference laboratory. A proportion of isolates had limited demographic, epidemiological and clinical data available. Organism identification was reconfirmed using reference laboratory methods, and the presence of carbapenemases was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analysed 1 503 significant isolates received for confirmation from the National Health Laboratory Service and some private laboratories during 2012 - 2015 and confirmed one or more carbapenemase-producing genes in 68% of isolates, the most common organism being Klebsiella pneumoniae (60%). The most common carbapenemase genes were blaNDM, followed by blaOXA-48 and its variants. BlaOXA-48 and its variants demonstrated non-susceptibility to ertapenem in 89% of the isolates when analysed by the phenotypic method, and to ceftazidime in 34%. Overall, the detection rate for carbapenemases in K. pneumoniae blood isolates in the public sector was 1.9% during the 4-year period. This report indicates the presence of CPE in SA, and it is important for all healthcare workers to be aware of this major public health threat so that infection prevention and control measures can be implemented to prevent the spread of CPE in healthcare facilities

    Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa

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    Background. Patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) frequently present to healthcare facilities in South Africa (SA).Aim. To provide information on UTI aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens.Methods. We recruited women with UTI-related symptoms, who tested positive for .2 urine dipstick criteria (proteinuria, blood, leucocytes or nitrites) at 1 public and 5 private primary healthcare facilities in 2011. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens were cultured. UTI pathogens were Gram-stained and identified to species level. Etest-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, cefuroxime,  ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole.Results. Of the 460 women recruited, 425 MSU samples were processed and 204 UTI pathogens were identified in 201 samples. Most pathogens were Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) (182; 89.2%) and 22 (10.8%) were Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Escherichia coli was the most frequent GNB (160; 79.6%), while Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant GPC (8; 4.0%). The UTI pathogens had similar susceptibility profiles for fosfomycin (95.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 92.6 - 98.4), the 3 fluoroquinolones (94.1%; 95% CI 90.8 - 97.4), nitrofurantoin (91.7%; 95% CI 87.8 - 95.6), cefuroxime (90.1%; 95% CI 86.0 - 94.3) and cefixime (88.2%; 95% CI 83.7 - 92.6). UTI pathogens were less susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (82.8%; 95% CI 77.5 - 88.0) when compared with fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin. Trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole was the least efficacious antimicrobial agent (44.3% susceptible; 95% CI 37.4 - 51.2).Conclusion. This study provides relevant data for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTIs in SA

    Predicted enhanced human propensity of current avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus from China

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    Influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes against which little or no pre-existing immunity exists in humans represent a serious threat to global public health. Monitoring of IAV in animal hosts is essential for early and rapid detection of potential pandemic IAV strains to prevent their spread. Recently, the increased pandemic potential of the avian-like swine H1N1 IAV A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013 has been suggested. The virus is infectious in humans and the general population seems to lack neutralizing antibodies against this virus. Here we present an in silico analysis that shows a strong human propensity of this swine virus further confirming its pandemic potential. We suggest mutations which would further enhance its human propensity. We also propose conserved antigenic determinants which could serve as a component of a prepandemic vaccine. The bioinformatics tool, which can be used to further monitor the evolution of swine influenza viruses towards a pandemic virus, are described here and are made publically available (http://www.vin.bg.ac.rs/180/tools/iav-mon.php; http://www.biomedprotection.com/iav-mon.php)

    The interface of syntax with pragmatics and prosody in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age:6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with ASD fell behind typically developing in comprehending and producing simple clitics and producing noun phrases in focus structures. The two groups performed similarly in comprehending and producing clitics in clitic left dislocation and in producing noun phrases in non-focus structures. We argue that children with ASD have difficulties at the interface of(morpho)syntax with pragmatics and prosody, namely, distinguishing a discourse prominent element, and considering intonation relevant for a particular interpretation that excludes clitics

    The consensus rye microsatellite map with EST-SSRs transferred from wheat

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    Microsatellite (SSR) markers with known precise intrachromosomal locations are widely used for mapping genes in rye and for the investigation of wheat-rye translocation lines and triticale highly demanded for mapping economically important genes and QTL-analysis. One of the sources of novel SSR markers in rye are microsatellites transferable from the wheat genome. Broadening the list of available SSRs in rye mapped to chromosomes is still needed, since some rye chromosome maps still have just a few microsatellite loci mapped. The goal of the current study was to integrate wheat EST-SSRs into the existing rye genetic maps and to construct a consensus rye microsatellite map. Four rye mapping populations (P87/P105, N6/N2, N7/N2 and N7/N6) were tested with CFE (EST-SSRs) primers. A total of 23 Xcfe loci were mapped on rye chromosomes: Xcfe023, -136 and -266 on chromosome 1R, Xcfe006, -067, -175 and -187 on 2R, Xcfe029 and -282 on 3R, Xcfe004, -100, -152, -224 and -260 on 4R, Xcfe037, -208 and -270 on 5R, Xcfe124, -159 and -277 on 6R, Xcfe010, -143 and -228 on 7R. With the exception of Xcfe159 and Xcfe224, all the Xcfe loci mapped were found in orthologous positions considering multiple evolutionary translocations in the rye genome relative to those of common wheat. The consensus map was constructed using mapping data from the four bi-parental populations. It contains a total of 123 microsatellites, 12 SNPs, 118 RFLPs and 2 isozyme loci

    Education can improve the negative perception of a threatened long-lived scavenging bird, the Andean condor

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    Human-wildlife conflicts currently represent one of the main conservation problems for wildlife species around the world. Vultures have serious conservation concerns, many of which are related to people's adverse perception about them due to the belief that they prey on livestock. Our aim was to assess local perception and the factors influencing people's perception of the largest scavenging bird in South America, the Andean condor. For this, we interviewed 112 people from Valle Fértil, San Juan province, a rural area of central west Argentina. Overall, people in the area mostly have an elementary education, and their most important activity is livestock rearing. The results showed that, in general, most people perceive the Andean condor as an injurious species and, in fact, some people recognize that they still kill condors. We identified two major factors that affect this perception, the education level of villagers and their relationship with livestock ranching. Our study suggests that conservation of condors and other similar scavengers depends on education programs designed to change the negative perception people have about them. Such programs should be particularly focused on ranchers since they are the ones who have the worst perception of these scavengers. We suggest that highlighting the central ecological role of scavengers and recovering their cultural value would be fundamental to reverse their persecution and their negative perception by people.Fil: Cailly Arnulphi, Verónica Beatríz. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - San Juan. Centro de Investigaciones de la Geosfera y Biosfera. Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales. Centro de Investigaciones de la Geosfera y Biosfera; ArgentinaFil: Lambertucci, Sergio Agustin. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Patagonia Norte. Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Centro Regional Universidad Bariloche. Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente; ArgentinaFil: Borghi, Carlos Eduardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - San Juan. Centro de Investigaciones de la Geosfera y Biosfera. Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales. Centro de Investigaciones de la Geosfera y Biosfera; Argentin
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