10,279 research outputs found

    An in-depth view of the microscopic dynamics of Ising spin glasses at fixed temperature

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    Using the dedicated computer Janus, we follow the nonequilibrium dynamics of the Ising spin glass in three dimensions for eleven orders of magnitude. The use of integral estimators for the coherence and correlation lengths allows us to study dynamic heterogeneities and the presence of a replicon mode and to obtain safe bounds on the Edwards-Anderson order parameter below the critical temperature. We obtain good agreement with experimental determinations of the temperature-dependent decay exponents for the thermoremanent magnetization. This magnitude is observed to scale with the much harder to measure coherence length, a potentially useful result for experimentalists. The exponents for energy relaxation display a linear dependence on temperature and reasonable extrapolations to the critical point. We conclude examining the time growth of the coherence length, with a comparison of critical and activated dynamics.Comment: 38 pages, 26 figure

    Functional and genomic analyses of α-solenoid proteins

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    {alpha}-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others). While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some {alpha}-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of {alpha}-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of {alpha}-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of {alpha}-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known {alpha}-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that {alpha}-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of {alpha}-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that {alpha}-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of {alpha}-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/

    The Spin Glass Phase in the Four-State, Three-Dimensional Potts Model

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    We perform numerical simulations, including parallel tempering, on the Potts glass model with binary random quenched couplings using the JANUS application-oriented computer. We find and characterize a glassy transition, estimating the location of the transition and the value of the critical exponents. We show that there is no ferromagnetic transition in a large temperature range around the glassy critical temperature. We also compare our results with those obtained recently on the "random permutation" Potts glass.Comment: 7 pages and 3 figures. Corrected minor typo

    Ianus: an Adpative FPGA Computer

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    Dedicated machines designed for specific computational algorithms can outperform conventional computers by several orders of magnitude. In this note we describe {\it Ianus}, a new generation FPGA based machine and its basic features: hardware integration and wide reprogrammability. Our goal is to build a machine that can fully exploit the performance potential of new generation FPGA devices. We also plan a software platform which simplifies its programming, in order to extend its intended range of application to a wide class of interesting and computationally demanding problems. The decision to develop a dedicated processor is a complex one, involving careful assessment of its performance lead, during its expected lifetime, over traditional computers, taking into account their performance increase, as predicted by Moore's law. We discuss this point in detail

    Matching microscopic and macroscopic responses in glasses

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    We first reproduce on the Janus and Janus II computers a milestone experiment that measures the spin-glass coherence length through the lowering of free-energy barriers induced by the Zeeman effect. Secondly we determine the scaling behavior that allows a quantitative analysis of a new experiment reported in the companion Letter [S. Guchhait and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157203 (2017)]. The value of the coherence length estimated through the analysis of microscopic correlation functions turns out to be quantitatively consistent with its measurement through macroscopic response functions. Further, non-linear susceptibilities, recently measured in glass-forming liquids, scale as powers of the same microscopic length.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    The Mpemba effect in spin glasses is a persistent memory effect

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    The Mpemba effect occurs when a hot system cools faster than an initially colder one, when both are refrigerated in the same thermal reservoir. Using the custom built supercomputer Janus II, we study the Mpemba effect in spin glasses and show that it is a non-equilibrium process, governed by the coherence length \xi of the system. The effect occurs when the bath temperature lies in the glassy phase, but it is not necessary for the thermal protocol to cross the critical temperature. In fact, the Mpemba effect follows from a strong relationship between the internal energy and \xi that turns out to be a sure-tell sign of being in the glassy phase. Thus, the Mpemba effect presents itself as an intriguing new avenue for the experimental study of the coherence length in supercooled liquids and other glass formers.Comment: Version accepted for publication in PNAS. 6 pages, 7 figure

    Critical Behavior of Three-Dimensional Disordered Potts Models with Many States

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    We study the 3D Disordered Potts Model with p=5 and p=6. Our numerical simulations (that severely slow down for increasing p) detect a very clear spin glass phase transition. We evaluate the critical exponents and the critical value of the temperature, and we use known results at lower pp values to discuss how they evolve for increasing p. We do not find any sign of the presence of a transition to a ferromagnetic regime.Comment: 9 pages and 9 Postscript figures. Final version published in J. Stat. Mec

    The three dimensional Ising spin glass in an external magnetic field: the role of the silent majority

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    We perform equilibrium parallel-tempering simulations of the 3D Ising Edwards-Anderson spin glass in a field. A traditional analysis shows no signs of a phase transition. Yet, we encounter dramatic fluctuations in the behaviour of the model: Averages over all the data only describe the behaviour of a small fraction of it. Therefore we develop a new approach to study the equilibrium behaviour of the system, by classifying the measurements as a function of a conditioning variate. We propose a finite-size scaling analysis based on the probability distribution function of the conditioning variate, which may accelerate the convergence to the thermodynamic limit. In this way, we find a non-trivial spectrum of behaviours, where a part of the measurements behaves as the average, while the majority of them shows signs of scale invariance. As a result, we can estimate the temperature interval where the phase transition in a field ought to lie, if it exists. Although this would-be critical regime is unreachable with present resources, the numerical challenge is finally well posed.Comment: 42 pages, 19 figures. Minor changes and added figure (results unchanged

    Nature of the spin-glass phase at experimental length scales

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    We present a massive equilibrium simulation of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass at low temperatures. The Janus special-purpose computer has allowed us to equilibrate, using parallel tempering, L=32 lattices down to T=0.64 Tc. We demonstrate the relevance of equilibrium finite-size simulations to understand experimental non-equilibrium spin glasses in the thermodynamical limit by establishing a time-length dictionary. We conclude that non-equilibrium experiments performed on a time scale of one hour can be matched with equilibrium results on L=110 lattices. A detailed investigation of the probability distribution functions of the spin and link overlap, as well as of their correlation functions, shows that Replica Symmetry Breaking is the appropriate theoretical framework for the physically relevant length scales. Besides, we improve over existing methodologies to ensure equilibration in parallel tempering simulations.Comment: 48 pages, 19 postscript figures, 9 tables. Version accepted for publication in the Journal of Statistical Mechanic

    Critical parameters of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass

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    We report a high-precision finite-size scaling study of the critical behavior of the three-dimensional Ising Edwards-Anderson model (the Ising spin glass). We have thermalized lattices up to L=40 using the Janus dedicated computer. Our analysis takes into account leading-order corrections to scaling. We obtain Tc = 1.1019(29) for the critical temperature, \nu = 2.562(42) for the thermal exponent, \eta = -0.3900(36) for the anomalous dimension and \omega = 1.12(10) for the exponent of the leading corrections to scaling. Standard (hyper)scaling relations yield \alpha = -5.69(13), \beta = 0.782(10) and \gamma = 6.13(11). We also compute several universal quantities at Tc.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figure
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