5,661 research outputs found

    Locoregional therapies in cholangiocarcinoma

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    Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. Complete surgical resection can be curative, but the majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and usually die within a year of diagnosis. Most deaths are attributable to local disease progression rather than distant metastases, supporting the use of locoregional therapies. There is evidence that locoregional therapies can provide local tumor control resulting in increased survival while avoiding some of the side effects of systemic treatments, increasing potential treatment options for patients who may be unsuitable for systemic palliative treatments. This review considers the evidence for locoregional therapies in cholangiocarcinoma, which can be classified into endoscopic, vascular, percutaneous and radiation oncological therapies. Current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of locoregional therapies due to a lack of prospective data, but the results of ongoing trials are likely to increase the evidence base and impact on clinical practice

    Potential role of age, sex, body mass index and pain to identify patients with knee osteoarthritis

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    Aim: To evaluate the potential role of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), radiographic features and pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) case ascertainment. Methods: A cross‐sectional study was performed using information from the EPIPorto cohort; social, demographic, behavioral and clinical data was obtained. Pain was assessed using a pain frequency score (regarding ever having knee pain, pain in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month). Knee radiographs were classified using the Kellgren–Lawrence scale (0–4). Path analysis was used to assess the plausibility of the causal assumptions and a classification tree to identify characteristics that could improve the identification of patients with radiographic OA. Results: Higher age and higher BMI were associated with higher radiographic score, but sex had no statistical association. Females, higher age, higher BMI and higher radiographic score were statistically associated with higher pain scores. For both genders, the classification tree estimated age as the first variable to identify individuals with knee radiographic features. In females older than 56 years, pain frequency score is the second discriminator characteristic, followed by age (> 65 years) and (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Higher pain frequency and BMI > 29 kg/m2 were relevant for identifying OA in men with ages between 43.5 and 55.5 years. Conclusions: Age, BMI and pain frequency are independently associated with radiographic OA and the use of information on these characteristics can improve the identification of patients with knee OA. Beyond age, pain complaints are particularly relevant but the level of pain is different by sex

    The Effect of Transposable Element Insertions on Gene Expression Evolution in Rodents

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    Background:Many genomes contain a substantial number of transposable elements (TEs), a few of which are known to be involved in regulating gene expression. However, recent observations suggest that TEs may have played a very important role in the evolution of gene expression because many conserved non-genic sequences, some of which are know to be involved in gene regulation, resemble TEs. Results:Here we investigate whether new TE insertions affect gene expression profiles by testing whether gene expression divergence between mouse and rat is correlated to the numbers of new transposable elements inserted near genes. We show that expression divergence is significantly correlated to the number of new LTR and SINE elements, but not to the numbers of LINEs. We also show that expression divergence is not significantly correlated to the numbers of ancestral TEs in most cases, which suggests that the correlations between expression divergence and the numbers of new TEs are causal in nature. We quantify the effect and estimate that TE insertion has accounted for ~20% (95% confidence interval: 12% to 26%) of all expression profile divergence in rodents. Conclusions:We conclude that TE insertions may have had a major impact on the evolution of gene expression levels in rodents

    Decreasing Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients by Implementing a Sepsis Bundle in a Hospital Setting

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    Background The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines for the management of severe sepsis (SS) and septic shock (SSh) have been recommended to reduce morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a medical-surgical ICU. Multiple interventions to optimize SS and SSh shock patients\u27 clinical outcomes were performed by applying sepsis bundles (6- and 24-hour) in May 2006. We compared bundle compliance and patient outcomes before (July 2005-April 2006) and after (May 2006-December 2009) implementation of the interventions. Results A total of 564 SS and SSh patients were identified. Prior to the intervention, compliance with the 6 hour-sepsis resuscitation bundle was only 6%. After the intervention, compliance was as follows: 8.2% from May to December 2006, 9.3% in 2007, 21.1% in 2008 and 13.7% in 2009. For the 24 hour-management bundle, baseline compliance was 15.0%. After the intervention, compliance was 15.1% from May to December 2006, 21.4% in 2007, 27.8% in 2008 and 44.4% in 2009. The in-hospital mortality was 54.0% from July 2005 to April 2006, 41.1% from May to December 2006, 39.3% in 2007, 41.4% in 2008 and 16.2% in 2009. Conclusion These results suggest reducing SS and SSh patient mortality is a complex process that involves multiple performance measures and interventions

    Rationale, design, and analysis of combined Brazilian household budget survey and food intake individual data

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Data on food intake at the individual level and its statistical distribution in population groups defined by age, gender, or geographic areas are important in planning public health and nutrition programs. However, individual-based surveys in representative population samples are expensive to perform.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>In Brazil, an individual based survey is under consideration to be conducted alongside the household budget survey (HBS), which will be carried out in 2008–2009. This paper presents the methodological framework of dietary data collection and indicates the directions to combining both sources of data.</p> <p>The 2008–2009 Brazilian HBS sample will include 60,000 households. Of the selected HBS households, 30% will be randomly sampled to gather data on individual food intake. Therefore, individual dietary intake data is expected to be gathered for 70,000 individuals. Data collection procedures will comprise: completion of a diary with information regarding food purchases during a seven-day period; registration of all items consumed during two non-consecutive days for all 10 year-old or older members of the household. The sample will be large enough to capture the variation between individuals, and the two records will assure the estimation of the variation within individuals for food groups, energy and nutrients. Data on individual dietary intake and food family budget will be stratified by the five regions of the country and by rural or urban. A pilot study has been conducted in two states, and it indicated that combining individual and budgetary data in a survey is feasible.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>This kind of study will allow us to estimate correlations between individual intake and household purchases, overcoming the limitations of individual dietary surveys, and enhancing the HBS with information on eating out and intra-familiar distribution of food.</p

    Deep learning from MRI-derived labels enables automatic brain tissue classification on human brain CT

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    Automatic methods for feature extraction, volumetry, and morphometric analysis in clinical neuroscience typically operate on images obtained with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging equipment. Although CT scans are less expensive to acquire and more widely available than MR scans, their application is currently limited to the visual assessment of brain integrity and the exclusion of co-pathologies. CT has rarely been used for tissue classification because the contrast between grey matter and white matter was considered insufficient. In this study, we propose an automatic method for segmenting grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and intracranial volume (ICV) from head CT images. A U-Net deep learning model was trained and validated on CT images with MRI-derived segmentation labels. We used data from 744 participants of the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies for whom CT and T1-weighted MR images had been acquired on the same day. Our proposed model predicted brain tissue classes accurately from unseen CT images (Dice coefficients of 0.79, 0.82, 0.75, 0.93 and 0.98 for GM, WM, CSF, brain volume and ICV, respectively). To contextualize these results, we generated benchmarks based on established MR-based methods and intentional image degradation. Our findings demonstrate that CT-derived segmentations can be used to delineate and quantify brain tissues, opening new possibilities for the use of CT in clinical practice and research

    The numerical control of the motion of a passive particle in a point vortex flow

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    This work reports numerical explorations in the advection of one passive tracer by point vortices living in the unbounded plane. The main objective is to find the energy-optimal displacement of one passive particle (point vortex with zero circulation) surrounded by N point vortices. The direct formulation of the corresponding control problems is presented for the case of N = 1, N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 vortices. The restrictions are due to (i) the ordinary differential equations that govern the displacement of the passive particle around the point vortices, (ii) the available time T to go from the initial position z0 to the final destination zf; and (iii) the maximum absolute value umax that is imposed on the control variables. The resulting optimization problems are solved numerically. The numerical results show the existence of nearly/quasi-optimal control.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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