75 research outputs found

    Temporally Consistent Online Depth Estimation Using Point-Based Fusion

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    Depth estimation is an important step in many computer vision problems such as 3D reconstruction, novel view synthesis, and computational photography. Most existing work focuses on depth estimation from single frames. When applied to videos, the result lacks temporal consistency, showing flickering and swimming artifacts. In this paper we aim to estimate temporally consistent depth maps of video streams in an online setting. This is a difficult problem as future frames are not available and the method must choose between enforcing consistency and correcting errors from previous estimations. The presence of dynamic objects further complicates the problem. We propose to address these challenges by using a global point cloud that is dynamically updated each frame, along with a learned fusion approach in image space. Our approach encourages consistency while simultaneously allowing updates to handle errors and dynamic objects. Qualitative and quantitative results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art quality for consistent video depth estimation.Comment: Supplementary video at https://research.facebook.com/publications/temporally-consistent-online-depth-estimation-using-point-based-fusion

    Perceptual Requirements for World-Locked Rendering in AR and VR

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    Stereoscopic, head-tracked display systems can show users realistic, world-locked virtual objects and environments. However, discrepancies between the rendering pipeline and physical viewing conditions can lead to perceived instability in the rendered content resulting in reduced realism, immersion, and, potentially, visually-induced motion sickness. The requirements to achieve perceptually stable world-locked rendering are unknown due to the challenge of constructing a wide field of view, distortion-free display with highly accurate head- and eye-tracking. In this work we introduce new hardware and software built upon recently introduced hardware and present a system capable of rendering virtual objects over real-world references without perceivable drift under such constraints. The platform is used to study acceptable errors in render camera position for world-locked rendering in augmented and virtual reality scenarios, where we find an order of magnitude difference in perceptual sensitivity between them. We conclude by comparing study results with an analytic model which examines changes to apparent depth and visual heading in response to camera displacement errors. We identify visual heading as an important consideration for world-locked rendering alongside depth errors from incorrect disparity

    Learning Free-Form Deformations for 3D Object Reconstruction

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    Representing 3D shape in deep learning frameworks in an accurate, efficient and compact manner still remains an open challenge. Most existing work addresses this issue by employing voxel-based representations. While these approaches benefit greatly from advances in computer vision by generalizing 2D convolutions to the 3D setting, they also have several considerable drawbacks. The computational complexity of voxel-encodings grows cubically with the resolution thus limiting such representations to low-resolution 3D reconstruction. In an attempt to solve this problem, point cloud representations have been proposed. Although point clouds are more efficient than voxel representations as they only cover surfaces rather than volumes, they do not encode detailed geometric information about relationships between points. In this paper we propose a method to learn free-form deformations (FFD) for the task of 3D reconstruction from a single image. By learning to deform points sampled from a high-quality mesh, our trained model can be used to produce arbitrarily dense point clouds or meshes with fine-grained geometry. We evaluate our proposed framework on both synthetic and real-world data and achieve state-of-the-art results on point-cloud and volumetric metrics. Additionally, we qualitatively demonstrate its applicability to label transferring for 3D semantic segmentation.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, 3 table

    Traditional and Health-Related Philanthropy: The Role of Resources and Personality

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    I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving: agreeableness to blood donation, empathic concern to charitable giving, and prosocial value orientation to postmortem organ donation. I find that giving has a consistently stronger relation to human and social capital than to personality. Human capital increases giving; social capital increases giving only when it is approved by others. Effects of prosocial personality characteristics decline at higher levels of these characteristics. Effects of empathic concern, helpfulness, and social value orientations on generosity are mediated by verbal proficiency and church attendance.

    Observation and integrated Earth-system science: a roadmap for 2016–2025

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    This report is the response to a request by the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of interacting components of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. All types of observation are considered, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016–2025 and some of the issues to be faced. Observations that are organised on a systematic basis and observations that are made for process understanding and model development, or other research or demonstration purposes, are covered. Specific accounts are given for many of the variables of the Earth system. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. The evolution towards applying Earth-system models for environmental monitoring and prediction as well as for climate simulation and projection is outlined. General aspects of the improvement of models, whether through refining the representations of processes that are already incorporated or through adding new processes or components, are discussed. Some important elements of Earth-system models are considered more fully. Data assimilation is discussed not only because it uses observations and models to generate datasets for monitoring the Earth system and for initiating and evaluating predictions, in particular through reanalysis, but also because of the feedback it provides on the quality of both the observations and the models employed. Inverse methods for surface-flux or model-parameter estimation are also covered. Reviews are given of the way observations and the processed datasets based on them are used for evaluating models, and of the combined use of observations and models for monitoring and interpreting the behaviour of the Earth system and for predicting and projecting its future. A set of concluding discussions covers general developmental needs, requirements for continuity of space-based observing systems, further long-term requirements for observations and other data, technological advances and data challenges, and the importance of enhanced international co-operation

    Metastable Se6 as a ligand for Ag+: from isolated molecular to polymeric 1D and 2D structures

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    Attempts to prepare the hitherto unknown Se6 2+ cation by the reaction of elemental selenium and Ag[A] ([A]- = [Sb(OTeF5)6]-, [Al(OC(CF3)3)4]-) in SO2 led to the formation of [(OSO)Ag(Se6)Ag(OSO)][Sb(OTeF5)6]2 1 and [(OSO)2Ag(Se6)Ag(OSO)2][Al(OC(CF3)3)4]2 2a. 1 could only be prepared by using bromine as co-oxidant, however, bulk 2b (2a with loss of SO2) was accessible from Ag[Al(OC(CF3)3)4] and grey Se in SO2 (chem. analysis). The reactions of Ag[MF6] (M= As, Sb) and elemental selenium led to crystals of 1/∞{[Ag(Se6)]∞[Ag2(SbF6)3]∞} 3 and {1/∞[Ag(Se6)Ag]∞}[AsF6]2 4. Pure bulk 4 was best prepared by the reaction of Se4[AsF6]2, silver metal and elemental selenium. Attempts to prepare bulk 1 and 3 were unsuccessful. 1–4 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determinations, 2b and 4 additionally by chemical analysis and 4 also by X-ray powder diffraction, FT-Raman and FT-IR pectroscopy. Application of the PRESTO III sequence allowed for the first time 109Ag MAS NMR investigations of 4 as well as AgF, AgF2, AgMF6 and {1/∞[Ag(I2)]∞}[MF6] (M= As, Sb). Compounds 1 and 2a/b, with the very large counter ions, contain isolated [Ag(Se6)Ag]2+ heterocubane units consisting of a Se6 molecule bicapped by two silver cations (local D3d sym). 3 and 4, with the smaller anions, contain close packed stacked arrays of Se6 rings with Ag+ residing in octahedral holes. Each Ag+ ion coordinates to three selenium atoms of each adjacent Se6 ring. 4 contains [Ag(Se6)+]∞ stacks additionally linked by Ag(2)+ into a two dimensional network. 3 features a remarkable 3-dimensional [Ag2(SbF6)3]- anion held together by strong Sb–F 
 Ag contacts between the component Ag+ and [SbF6]- ions. The hexagonal channels formed by the [Ag2(SbF6)3]- anions are filled by stacks of [Ag(Se6)+]∞ cations. Overall 1–4 are new members of the rare class of metal complexes of neutral main group elemental clusters, in which the main group element is positively polarized due to coordination to a metal ion. Notably, 1 to 4 include the commonly metastable Se6 molecule as a ligand. The structure, bonding and thermodynamics of 1 to 4 were investigated with the help of quantum chemical calculations (PBE0/TZVPP and (RI-)MP2/TZVPP, in part including COSMO solvation) and Born–Fajans–Haber-cycle calculations. From an analysis of all the available data it appears that the formation of the usually metastable Se6 molecule from grey selenium is thermodynamically driven by the coordination to the Ag+ ions

    History of Galaxy Interactions and their Impact on Star Formation over the Last 7 Gyr from GEMS

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    We perform a comprehensive estimate of the frequency of galaxy mergers and their impact on star formation over z~0.24--0.80 (lookback time T_b~3--7 Gyr) using 3698 (M*>=1e9 Msun) galaxies with GEMS HST, COMBO-17, and Spitzer data. Our results are: (1) Among 790 high mass (M*>=2.5e10 Msun) galaxies, the visually-based merger fraction over z~0.24--0.80, ranges from 9%+-5% to 8%+-2%. Lower limits on the major and minor merger fractions over this interval range from 1.1% to 3.5%, and 3.6% to 7.5%, respectively. This is the first approximate empirical estimate of the frequency of minor mergers at z<1. For a visibility timescale of ~0.5 Gyr, it follows that over T_b~3--7 Gyr, ~68% of high mass systems have undergone a merger of mass ratio >1/10, with ~16%, 45%, and 7% of these corresponding respectively to major, minor, and ambiguous `major or minor' mergers. The mean merger rate is a few x 1e-4 Gyr-1 Mpc-3. (2) We compare the empirical merger fraction and rate for high mass galaxies to a suite of Lambda CDM-based models: halo occupation distribution models, semi-analytic models, and hydrodynamic SPH simulations. We find qualitative agreement between observations and models such that the (major+minor) merger fraction or rate from different models bracket the observations, and show a factor of five dispersion. Near-future improvements can now start to rule out certain merger scenarios. (3) Among ~3698 M*>=1e9 Msun galaxies, we find that the mean SFR of visibly merging systems is only modestly enhanced compared to non-interacting galaxies over z~0.24--0.80. Visibly merging systems only account for less than 30% of the cosmic SFR density over T_b~3--7 Gyr. This suggests that the behavior of the cosmic SFR density over the last 7 Gyr is predominantly shaped by non-interacting galaxies.Comment: Accepted for Publication in the Astrophysical Journal. 17 pages of text, 21 figures, 3 tables. Uses emulateapj5.st

    Physiological Correlates of Volunteering

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    We review research on physiological correlates of volunteering, a neglected but promising research field. Some of these correlates seem to be causal factors influencing volunteering. Volunteers tend to have better physical health, both self-reported and expert-assessed, better mental health, and perform better on cognitive tasks. Research thus far has rarely examined neurological, neurochemical, hormonal, and genetic correlates of volunteering to any significant extent, especially controlling for other factors as potential confounds. Evolutionary theory and behavioral genetic research suggest the importance of such physiological factors in humans. Basically, many aspects of social relationships and social activities have effects on health (e.g., Newman and Roberts 2013; Uchino 2004), as the widely used biopsychosocial (BPS) model suggests (Institute of Medicine 2001). Studies of formal volunteering (FV), charitable giving, and altruistic behavior suggest that physiological characteristics are related to volunteering, including specific genes (such as oxytocin receptor [OXTR] genes, Arginine vasopressin receptor [AVPR] genes, dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4] genes, and 5-HTTLPR). We recommend that future research on physiological factors be extended to non-Western populations, focusing specifically on volunteering, and differentiating between different forms and types of volunteering and civic participation

    Sympathy and Tenderness as Components of Dispositional Empathic Concern: Predicting Helping and Caring Behaviors

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    Recently, empathic concern was separated into the components of sympathy and tenderness (Lishner, Batson, & Huss, 2011). So far, these two emotional experiences have been assessed as episodic emotional responses, as the existent dispositional measures remain blind to such distinction. The aim of the present research is to develop and validate a dispositional measure that captures the personal disposition to feel sympathy, tenderness, and personal distress. This new scale is called Sympathy, Tenderness and Distress Dispositional Scale (SyTeD). In Study 1, we developed and tested the internal consistency and factor structure of the English version of the scale in the United States. In Study 2, we translated the scale into Spanish and tested its content and criterion validity in Spain. In Study 3, we tested the predictive validity of the sympathy-tenderness distinction within a helping vs. a care-based scenario in the United Kingdom (SyTeD-English version). In Study 4, we tested the predictive validity of the sympathy-tenderness distinction in a real helping situation in Spain (SyTeD-Spanish version). The results across these four studies suggest that the SyTeD is a useful measure of dispositional sympathy and tenderness that allows studying further different types of prosocial behavior (i.e., help vs. care)