842 research outputs found

    On the Momentum Dependence of the Flavor Structure of the Nucleon Sea

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    Difference between the uˉ\bar u and dˉ\bar d sea quark distributions in the proton was first observed in the violation of the Gottfried sum rule in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments. The parton momentum fraction xx dependence of this difference has been measured over the region 0.02<x<0.350.02 < x < 0.35 from Drell-Yan and semi-inclusive DIS experiments. The Drell-Yan data suggested a possible sign-change for dˉ(x)uˉ(x)\bar d(x)-\bar u(x) near x0.3x \sim 0.3, which has not yet been explained by existing theoretical models. We present an independent evidence for the dˉ(x)uˉ(x)\bar d(x)-\bar u(x) sign-change at x0.3x \sim 0.3 from an analysis of the DIS data. We further discuss the xx-dependence of dˉ(x)uˉ(x)\bar d(x)-\bar u(x) in the context of meson cloud model and the lattice QCD formulation.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, final versio

    Teacher Prompting for Federated Hotword Training

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    Federated hotword training enables developing high quality models on real-world user data that is kept entirely on-device. However, such training relies on existing teacher models which limits the quality of the synthetic labels provided to the student model during federated training. This disclosure describes techniques that use a feature-wise linear modulation method to incorporate utterance-level label prompt as an input for federated hotword training by modulating intermediate layer output. Such a model, when trained on central data, can be used as a teacher for federated training that takes place on user devices. The feature-wise modulation layer has the ability to receive utterance-level label prompts, which can be used for training the teacher models centrally. As a result, the teacher model is trained to associate the utterance-level signal with the correct frame-level activation pattern during central training. Such a model can then be deployed as a teacher for federated training. During federated training, on-device signals correlated with utterance-level labels such as output of on-device ASR models, binary classifiers, metadata, etc. are leveraged or improved teacher performance

    TransTIC: Transferring Transformer-based Image Compression from Human Visualization to Machine Perception

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    This work aims for transferring a Transformer-based image compression codec from human vision to machine perception without fine-tuning the codec. We propose a transferable Transformer-based image compression framework, termed TransTIC. Inspired by visual prompt tuning, we propose an instance-specific prompt generator to inject instance-specific prompts to the encoder and task-specific prompts to the decoder. Extensive experiments show that our proposed method is capable of transferring the codec to various machine tasks and outshining the competing methods significantly. To our best knowledge, this work is the first attempt to utilize prompting on the low-level image compression task

    Connected-Sea Partons

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    According to the path-integral formalism of the hadronic tensor, the nucleon sea contains two distinct components called connected sea (CS) and disconnected sea (DS). We discuss how the CS and DS are accessed in the lattice QCD calculation of the moments of the parton distributions. We show that the CS and DS components for uˉ(x)+dˉ(x)\bar u(x) + \bar d(x) can be extracted by using recent data on the strangeness parton distribution, the CT10 global fit, and the lattice result of the ratio of the strange to u(d)u(d) moments in the disconnected insertion. The extracted CS and DS for uˉ(x)+dˉ(x)\bar u(x) + \bar d(x) have distinct Bjorken xx dependence in qualitative agreement with expectation. The analysis also shows that the momentum fraction of the uˉ(x)+dˉ(x)\bar u(x) + \bar d(x) is about equally divided between CS and DS at Q2=2.5GeV2Q^2 = 2.5 {\rm GeV}^2. Implications on future global analysis for parton distributions are presented.Comment: Revised version to be published in Phys. Rev. Let

    Anti-IL-17A antibody-associated de novo vitiligo: Case report and review of literature

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    Interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitor is a biological therapy approved for moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. The common adverse events of IL-17 inhibitor include injection site reaction, infections, nasopharyngitis, and headache. However, vitiligo associated with the use of IL-17 inhibitors was rarely reported in the previous literature. Here we described a woman who developed de novo vitiligo after 4 months of IL-17A inhibitor treatment for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Upon discontinuation of IL-17A inhibitor and shifting to a broader T cell inhibitor—cyclosporine, our patient had control of both psoriasis and vitiligo and achieved 75% repigmentation after 3 months of oral cyclosporine without phototherapy. Due to the increasing use of anti-IL-17 biologics in psoriasis patients, clinicians should inquire about vitiligo’s history before treatment and inform patients of the possible adverse effects

    Morphological and Molecular Defects in Human Three-Dimensional Retinal Organoid Model of X-Linked Juvenile Retinoschisis

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    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS), linked to mutations in the RS1 gene, is a degenerative retinopathy with a retinal splitting phenotype. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients to study XLRS in a 3D retinal organoid in vitro differentiation system. This model recapitulates key features of XLRS including retinal splitting, defective retinoschisin production, outer-segment defects, abnormal paxillin turnover, and impaired ER-Golgi transportation. RS1 mutation also affects the development of photoreceptor sensory cilia and results in altered expression of other retinopathy-associated genes. CRISPR/Cas9 correction of the disease-associated C625T mutation normalizes the splitting phenotype, outer-segment defects, paxillin dynamics, ciliary marker expression, and transcriptome profiles. Likewise, mutating RS1 in control hiPSCs produces the disease-associated phenotypes. Finally, we show that the C625T mutation can be repaired precisely and efficiently using a base-editing approach. Taken together, our data establish 3D organoids as a valid disease model

    Effects of Hemodynamic Response Function Selection on Rat fMRI Statistical Analyses

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    The selection of the appropriate hemodynamic response function (HRF) for signal modeling in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is important. Although the use of the boxcar-shaped hemodynamic response function (BHRF) and canonical hemodynamic response (CHRF) has gained increasing popularity in rodent fMRI studies, whether the selected HRF affects the results of rodent fMRI has not been fully elucidated. Here we investigated the signal change and t-statistic sensitivities of BHRF, CHRF, and impulse response function (IRF). The effect of HRF selection on different tasks was analyzed by using data collected from two groups of rats receiving either 3 mA whisker pad or 3 mA forepaw electrical stimulations (n = 10 for each group). Under whisker pad stimulation with large blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal change (4.31 ± 0.42%), BHRF significantly underestimated signal changes (P &lt; 0.001) and t-statistics (P &lt; 0.001) compared with CHRF or IRF. CHRF and IRF did not provide significantly different t-statistics (P &gt; 0.05). Under forepaw stimulation with small BOLD signal change (1.71 ± 0.34%), different HRFs provided insignificantly different t-statistics (P &gt; 0.05). Therefore, the selected HRF can influence data analysis in rodent fMRI experiments with large BOLD responses but not in those with small BOLD responses
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