62,632 research outputs found

    Stability of the holographic description of the Universe

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    We investigate the stability of the holographic description of the universe. By treating the perturbation globally, we discover that this description is stable, which is support for the holographic description of the universe.Comment: 11 page

    Dynamic Graph Stream Algorithms in o(n)o(n) Space

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    In this paper we study graph problems in dynamic streaming model, where the input is defined by a sequence of edge insertions and deletions. As many natural problems require Ω(n)\Omega(n) space, where nn is the number of vertices, existing works mainly focused on designing O~(n)\tilde{O}(n) space algorithms. Although sublinear in the number of edges for dense graphs, it could still be too large for many applications (e.g. nn is huge or the graph is sparse). In this work, we give single-pass algorithms beating this space barrier for two classes of problems. We present o(n)o(n) space algorithms for estimating the number of connected components with additive error εn\varepsilon n and (1+ε)(1+\varepsilon)-approximating the weight of minimum spanning tree, for any small constant ε>0\varepsilon>0. The latter improves previous O~(n)\tilde{O}(n) space algorithm given by Ahn et al. (SODA 2012) for connected graphs with bounded edge weights. We initiate the study of approximate graph property testing in the dynamic streaming model, where we want to distinguish graphs satisfying the property from graphs that are ε\varepsilon-far from having the property. We consider the problem of testing kk-edge connectivity, kk-vertex connectivity, cycle-freeness and bipartiteness (of planar graphs), for which, we provide algorithms using roughly O~(n1ε)\tilde{O}(n^{1-\varepsilon}) space, which is o(n)o(n) for any constant ε\varepsilon. To complement our algorithms, we present Ω(n1O(ε))\Omega(n^{1-O(\varepsilon)}) space lower bounds for these problems, which show that such a dependence on ε\varepsilon is necessary.Comment: ICALP 201