2,861 research outputs found

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    This paper presents measurements of the W+μ+νW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and WμνW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Expression of NF-κB p50 in Tumor Stroma Limits the Control of Tumors by Radiation Therapy

    Get PDF
    Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells with a minimum of normal tissue toxicity. Dying cancer cells have been proposed to be a source of tumor antigens and may release endogenous immune adjuvants into the tumor environment. For these reasons, radiation therapy may be an effective modality to initiate new anti-tumor adaptive immune responses that can target residual disease and distant metastases. However, tumors engender an environment dominated by M2 differentiated tumor macrophages that support tumor invasion, metastases and escape from immune control. In this study, we demonstrate that following radiation therapy of tumors in mice, there is an influx of tumor macrophages that ultimately polarize towards immune suppression. We demonstrate using in vitro models that this polarization is mediated by transcriptional regulation by NFκB p50, and that in mice lacking NFκB p50, radiation therapy is more effective. We propose that despite the opportunity for increased antigen-specific adaptive immune responses, the intrinsic processes of repair following radiation therapy may limit the ability to control residual disease

    Inhibition of Reactive Gliosis Attenuates Excitotoxicity-Mediated Death of Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Get PDF
    Reactive gliosis is a hallmark of many retinal neurodegenerative conditions, including glaucoma. Although a majority of studies to date have concentrated on reactive gliosis in the optic nerve head, very few studies have been initiated to investigate the role of reactive gliosis in the retina. We have previously shown that reactive glial cells synthesize elevated levels of proteases, and these proteases, in turn, promote the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this investigation, we have used two glial toxins to inhibit reactive gliosis and have evaluated their effect on protease-mediated death of RGCs. Kainic acid was injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice to induce reactive gliosis and death of RGCs. C57BL/6 mice were also treated with glial toxins, alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA) or Neurostatin, along with KA. Reactive gliosis was assessed by immunostaining of retinal cross sections and retinal flat-mounts with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin antibodies. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by TUNEL assays. Loss of RGCs was determined by immunostaining of flat-mounted retinas with Brn3a antibodies. Proteolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) were assessed by zymography assays. GFAP-immunoreactivity indicated that KA induced reactive gliosis in both retinal astrocytes and in Muller cells. AAA alone or in combination with KA decreased GFAP and vimentin-immunoreactivity in Mϋller cells, but not in astrocytes. In addition AAA failed to decrease KA-mediated protease levels and apoptotic death of RGCs. In contrast, Neurostatin either alone or in combination with KA, decreased reactive gliosis in both astrocytes and Mϋller cells. Furthermore, Neurostatin decreased protease levels and prevented apoptotic death of RGCs. Our findings, for the first time, indicate that inhibition of reactive gliosis decreases protease levels in the retina, prevents apoptotic death of retinal neurons, and provides substantial neuroprotection

    Green Pathways for the Enzymatic Synthesis of Furan-Based Polyesters and Polyamides

    Get PDF
    The attention towards the utilization of sustainable feedstocks for polymer synthesis has grown exponentially in recent years. One of the spotlighted monomers derived from renewable resources is 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), one of the most promising bio-based monomers, due to its resemblance to petroleum-based terephthalic acid. Very interesting synthetic routes using this monomer have been reported in the last two decades. Combining the use of bio-based monomers and non-toxic chemicals via enzymatic polymerizations can lead to a robust and favorable approach towards a greener technology of bio-based polymer production. In this chapter, a brief introduction to FDCA-based monomers and enzymatic polymerizations is given, particularly focusing on furan-based polymers and their polymerization. In addition, an outline of the recent developments in the field of enzymatic polymerizations is discussed. </p

    Fungal planet description sheets: 951–1041

    Get PDF
    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica , Apenidiella antarctica from permafrost, Cladosporium fildesense fromanunidentifiedmarinesponge. Argentina , Geastrum wrightii onhumusinmixedforest. Australia , Golovinomyces glandulariae on Glandularia aristigera, Neoanungitea eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Teratosphaeria corymbiicola on leaves of Corymbia ficifolia, Xylaria eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus radiata. Brazil, Bovista psammophila on soil, Fusarium awaxy on rotten stalks of Zea mays, Geastrum lanuginosum on leaf litter covered soil, Hermetothecium mikaniae-micranthae (incl. Hermetothecium gen. nov.)on Mikania micrantha, Penicillium reconvexovelosoi in soil, Stagonosporopsis vannaccii from pod of Glycine max. British Virgin Isles , Lactifluus guanensis onsoil. Canada , Sorocybe oblongispora on resin of Picea rubens. Chile, Colletotrichum roseum on leaves of Lapageria rosea. China, Setophoma caverna fromcarbonatiteinKarstcave. Colombia , Lareunionomyces eucalypticola on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis. Costa Rica, Psathyrella pivae onwood. Cyprus , Clavulina iris oncalcareoussubstrate. France , Chromosera ambigua and Clavulina iris var. occidentalis onsoil. French West Indies , Helminthosphaeria hispidissima ondeadwood. Guatemala , Talaromyces guatemalensis insoil. Malaysia , Neotracylla pini (incl. Tracyllales ord. nov. and Neotra- cylla gen. nov.)and Vermiculariopsiella pini on needles of Pinus tecunumanii. New Zealand, Neoconiothyrium viticola on stems of Vitis vinifera, Parafenestella pittospori on Pittosporum tenuifolium, Pilidium novae-zelandiae on Phoenix sp. Pakistan , Russula quercus-floribundae onforestfloor. Portugal , Trichoderma aestuarinum from salinewater. Russia , Pluteus liliputianus on fallen branch of deciduous tree, Pluteus spurius on decaying deciduouswoodorsoil. South Africa , Alloconiothyrium encephalarti, Phyllosticta encephalarticola and Neothyrostroma encephalarti (incl. Neothyrostroma gen. nov.)onleavesof Encephalartos sp., Chalara eucalypticola on leaf spots of Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Clypeosphaeria oleae on leaves of Olea capensis, Cylindrocladiella postalofficium on leaf litter of Sideroxylon inerme , Cylindromonium eugeniicola (incl. Cylindromonium gen. nov.)onleaflitterof Eugenia capensis , Cyphellophora goniomatis on leaves of Gonioma kamassi , Nothodactylaria nephrolepidis (incl. Nothodactylaria gen. nov. and Nothodactylariaceae fam. nov.)onleavesof Nephrolepis exaltata , Falcocladium eucalypti and Gyrothrix eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Gyrothrix oleae on leaves of Olea capensis subsp. macrocarpa , Harzia metro sideri on leaf litter of Metrosideros sp., Hippopotamyces phragmitis (incl. Hippopota- myces gen. nov.)onleavesof Phragmites australis , Lectera philenopterae on Philenoptera violacea , Leptosillia mayteni on leaves of Maytenus heterophylla , Lithohypha aloicola and Neoplatysporoides aloes on leaves of Aloe sp., Millesimomyces rhoicissi (incl. Millesimomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Rhoicissus digitata , Neodevriesia strelitziicola on leaf litter of Strelitzia nicolai , Neokirramyces syzygii (incl. Neokirramyces gen. nov.)onleafspots o

    The Science Performance of JWST as Characterized in Commissioning

    Get PDF
    This paper characterizes the actual science performance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as determined from the six month commissioning period. We summarize the performance of the spacecraft, telescope, science instruments, and ground system, with an emphasis on differences from pre-launch expectations. Commissioning has made clear that JWST is fully capable of achieving the discoveries for which it was built. Moreover, almost across the board, the science performance of JWST is better than expected; in most cases, JWST will go deeper faster than expected. The telescope and instrument suite have demonstrated the sensitivity, stability, image quality, and spectral range that are necessary to transform our understanding of the cosmos through observations spanning from near-earth asteroids to the most distant galaxies