3,214 research outputs found

    Measurement of the Higgs properties at CMS

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    The studies of the properties of the recently found boson performed by CMS are presented. The analyses reported here use the data sample of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7TeV and 12.1 fb−1 at √s = 8TeV delivered by LHC and collected by the CMS experiment. The background-only hypothesis is excluded with a 6.9σ significance. The mass of the new boson is measured to be 125.8 ± 0.4(stat) ± 0.4(syst) GeV/c2, combining the diphoton and four lepton channels. Several spin and intrinsic parity hypotheses are tested. The SM coupling structure is tested combining the measurements in all the considered final states, and a good Agreement is found with the Standard Model predictions

    Estimation of fluence rate and absorbed dose rate due to gas bremsstrahlung from electron storage rings

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    Abstract Bremsstrahlung produced in electron storage rings by interactions with residual gas has been studied in the energy range 100–1000 MeV using the PLUKA code. Photon spectra and quantitative estimates of fluence rate and tissue absorbed dose rate are given. Simple equations are proposed for the fluence rate and the absorbed dose rate according to the results obtained

    Modelling the influence of shielding on physical and biological organ doses.

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    Distributions of "physical" and "biological" dose in different organs were calculated by coupling the FLUKA MC transport code with a geometrical human phantom inserted into a shielding box of variable shape, thickness and material. While the expression "physical dose" refers to the amount of deposited energy per unit mass (in Gy), "biological dose" was modelled with "Complex Lesions" (CL), clustered DNA strand breaks calculated in a previous work based on "event-by-event" track-structure simulations. The yields of complex lesions per cell and per unit dose were calculated for different radiation types and energies, and integrated into a version of FLUKA modified for this purpose, allowing us to estimate the effects of mixed fields. As an initial test simulation, the phantom was inserted into an aluminium parallelepiped and was isotropically irradiated with 500 MeV protons. Dose distributions were calculated for different values of the shielding thickness. The results were found to be organ-dependent. In most organs, with increasing shielding thickness the contribution of primary protons showed an initial flat region followed by a gradual decrease, whereas secondary particles showed an initial increase followed by a decrease at large thickness values. Secondary particles were found to provide a substantial contribution, especially to the biological dose. In particular, the decrease of their contribution occurred at larger depths than for primary protons. In addition, their contribution to biological dose was generally greater than that of primary protons

    Infering Air Quality from Traffic Data using Transferable Neural Network Models

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    This work presents a neural network based model for inferring air quality from traffic measurements. It is important to obtain information on air quality in urban environments in order to meet legislative and policy requirements. Measurement equipment tends to be expensive to purchase and maintain. Therefore, a model based approach capable of accurate determination of pollution levels is highly beneficial. The objective of this study was to develop a neural network model to accurately infer pollution levels from existing data sources in Leicester, UK. Neural Networks are models made of several highly interconnected processing elements. These elements process information by their dynamic state response to inputs. Problems which were not solvable by traditional algorithmic approaches frequently can be solved using neural networks. This paper shows that using a simple neural network with traffic and meteorological data as inputs, the air quality can be estimated with a good level of generalisation and in near real-time. By applying these models to links rather than nodes, this methodology can directly be used to inform traffic engineers and direct traffic management decisions towards enhancing local air quality and traffic management simultaneously.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    The hadronic models for cosmic ray physics: the FLUKA code solutions

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    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo transport and interaction code used for fundamental physics and for a wide range of applications. These include Cosmic Ray Physics (muons, neutrinos, EAS, underground physics), both for basic research and applied studies in space and atmospheric flight dosimetry and radiation damage. A review of the hadronic models available in FLUKA and relevant for the description of cosmic ray air showers is presented in this paper. Recent updates concerning these models are discussed. The FLUKA capabilities in the simulation of the formation and propagation of EM and hadronic showers in the Earth's atmosphere are shown.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figures. Invited talk presented by M.V. Garzelli at ISVHECRI2006, International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Rays, Weihai, China, August 15 - 22 200

    A simplified analytical model of ultrafine particle concentration within an indoor environment

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    Exposure to indoor fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) has been recognised as a fundamental problem as most people spend over 85% of their time indoor. Experimental data derived from a field campaign conducted in a confined environment have been used to investigate the physical mechanisms governing indoor-outdoor PM exchanges in different operating conditions, e.g. natural ventilation and infiltration. An analytical model based on the mass balance of PM has been used to estimate indoor fine and ultrafine PM concentration. Indoor-outdoor concentration ratio, penetration factor and air exchange rate have been estimated and related to the differential pressure measured at the openings