4,868 research outputs found

    Unified Direct-Flux Vector Control for AC Motor Drives

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    The paper introduces a Unified Direct-Flux Vector Control scheme suitable for sinusoidal AC motor drives. The AC drives considered here are Induction Motor, Synchronous Reluctance and synchronous Permanent Magnet motor drives, including Interior and Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet types. The proposed controller operates in stator flux coordinates: the stator flux amplitude is directly controlled by the direct voltage component, while the torque is controlled by regulating the quadrature current component. The unified direct-flux control is particularly convenient when flux-weakening is required, since it easily guarantees maximum torque production under current and voltage limitations. The hardware for control is standard and the control firmware is the same for all the motors under test with the only exception of the magnetic model used for flux estimation at low speed. Experimental results on four different drives are provided, showing the validity of the proposed unified control approac

    Evaporative cooling of a small number of atoms in a single-beam microscopic dipole trap

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    We demonstrate experimentally the evaporative cooling of a few hundred rubidium 87 atoms in a single-beam microscopic dipole trap. Starting from 800 atoms at a temperature of 125microKelvins, we produce an unpolarized sample of 40 atoms at 110nK, within 3s. The phase-space density at the end of the evaporation reaches unity, close to quantum degeneracy. The gain in phase-space density after evaporation is 10^3. We find that the scaling laws used for much larger numbers of atoms are still valid despite the small number of atoms involved in the evaporative cooling process. We also compare our results to a simple kinetic model describing the evaporation process and find good agreement with the data.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Nuclear Charge Density Distributions from Elastic Electron Scattering Data

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    The model independent procedure of extracting charge density distributions from elastic electron scattering data is investigated. The charge density distributions are expanded on an orthonormal basis and the parameters of the expansions are fixed by the comparison with the experimental data. Two bases with different analytical properties (Fourier-Bessel and Hermite) are used. This allows us to disentangle the uncertainties coming from the choice of the expansion basis from those intrinsic to the extraction procedure. We design a set of tests to select the number of the expansion coefficients adequate for a proper description of the data. The procedure is applied to elastic data measured on 12^{12}C, 40^{40}Ca and 208^{208}Pb nuclei.Comment: 17 pages, 11 figures available on request to [email protected], to be published in Nucl.Phy

    Observation of suppression of light scattering induced by dipole-dipole interactions in a cold atomic ensemble

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    We study the emergence of collective scattering in the presence of dipole-dipole interactions when we illuminate a cold cloud of rubidium atoms with a near-resonant and weak intensity laser. The size of the atomic sample is comparable to the wavelength of light. When we gradually increase the atom number from 1 to 450, we observe a broadening of the line, a small red shift and, consistently with these, a strong suppression of the scattered light with respect to the noninteracting atom case. Numerical simulations, which include the internal atomic level structure, agree with the data.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure
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