791 research outputs found

    Production and characterization of random electrode sectorization in GEM foils

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    In triple-GEM detectors, the segmentation of GEM foils in electrically independent sectors allows reducing the probability of discharge damage to the detector and improving the detector rate capability; however, a segmented foil presents thin dead regions in the separation between two sectors and the segmentation pattern has to be manually aligned with the GEM hole pattern during the foil manufacturing, a procedure potentially sensitive to errors. We describe the production and characterization of triple-GEM detectors produced with an innovative GEM foil segmentation technique, the ``random hole segmentation'', that allows an easier manufacturing of segmented GEM foils. The electrical stability to high voltage and the gain uniformity of a random-hole segmented triple-GEM prototype are measured. The results of a test beam on a prototype assembled for the Phase-2 GEM upgrade of the CMS experiment are also presented; a high-statistics efficiency measurement shows that the random hole segmentation can limit the efficiency loss of the detector in the areas between two sectors, making it a viable alternative to blank segmentation for the GEM foil manufacturing of large-area detector systems

    Microsatellite diversity of the Nordic type of goats in relation to breed conservation: how relevant is pure ancestry?

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    In the last decades, several endangered breeds of livestock species have been re-established effectively. However, the successful revival of the Dutch and Danish Landrace goats involved crossing with exotic breeds and the ancestry of the current populations is therefore not clear. We have generated genotypes for 27 FAO-recommended microsatellites of these landraces and three phenotypically similar Nordic-type landraces and compared these breeds with central European, Mediterranean and south-west Asian goats. We found decreasing levels of genetic diversity with increasing distance from the south-west Asian domestication site with a south-east-to-north-west cline that is clearly steeper than the Mediterranean east-to-west cline. In terms of genetic diversity, the Dutch Landrace comes next to the isolated Icelandic breed, which has an extremely low diversity. The Norwegian coastal goat and the Finnish and Icelandic landraces are clearly related. It appears that by a combination of mixed origin and a population bottleneck, the Dutch and Danish Land-races are separated from the other breeds. However, the current Dutch and Danish populations with the multicoloured and long-horned appearance effectively substitute for the original breed, illustrating that for conservation of cultural heritage, the phenotype of a breed is more relevant than pure ancestry and the genetic diversity of the original breed. More in general, we propose that for conservation, the retention of genetic diversity of an original breed and of the visual phenotype by which the breed is recognized and defined needs to be considered separately

    Towards a muon collider

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    A muon collider would enable the big jump ahead in energy reach that is needed for a fruitful exploration of fundamental interactions. The challenges of producing muon collisions at high luminosity and 10 TeV centre of mass energy are being investigated by the recently-formed International Muon Collider Collaboration. This Review summarises the status and the recent advances on muon colliders design, physics and detector studies. The aim is to provide a global perspective of the field and to outline directions for future work

    Measurement of the B0^{0}s_{s} ‚Üí őľ+^{+} őľ‚ąí^{-} decay properties and search for the B0^{0} ‚Üí őľ+^{+}őľ‚ąí^{-} decay in proton-proton collisions at ‚ąös = 13 TeV

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    Search for top squarks in the four-body decay mode with single lepton final states in proton-proton collisions at s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV