142 research outputs found

    Maximizing Fiber Utilization of Silage in Ruminants

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    This chapter highlights the importance of fiber digestibility and utilization in ruminants and to summarize the main factors that influence fiber digestibility in silages. Forage provides at least half of the diet of lactating cattle and greatly affects energy and carbohydrate intake. It is important to maximize the intake of digestible carbohydrate from forages, because energy requirements for maintenance and milk production often exceed the amount of energy high-producing cows can consume, particularly in early lactation. There are many approaches used for enhancing fiber utilization in silage and subsequent maximizing energy intake and productivity of dairy cattle. Out of these approaches are: selecting appropriate forages with high fiber digestibility, applying the appropriate agronomic practices such as harvesting at the proper stage of maturity, fertilization, and cutting height at harvest, along with using of esterase-producing inoculants or fibrolytic enzymes have been proposed as approaches to improving the productivity of dairy cattle

    Microprobing Structural Architecture Using Mid-Infrared Vibrational Molecular Spectroscopy

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    The biofunctions of biopolymers are closely related to their microstructures in the complex plant-based tissue in biological systems. In this chapter, molecular spectroscopy is introduced as an approach to microprobe the structural architecture of plant-based seed tissues. Some recent progresses are made using molecular spectroscopy techniques. The working principles of the techniques, along with the methods of molecular spectral analyses and applications in feed architecture research are described

    Using Vibrational Infrared Biomolecular Spectroscopy to Detect Heat-Induced Changes of Molecular Structure in Relation to Nutrient Availability of Prairie Whole Oat Grains on a Molecular Basis

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    BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there is little study on the interaction between nutrient availability and molecular structure changes induced by different processing methods in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of heat processing methods on interaction between nutrient availability and molecular structure in terms of functional groups that are related to protein and starch inherent structure of oat grains with two continued years and three replication of each year. METHOD: The oat grains were kept as raw (control) or heated in an air-draft oven (dry roasting: DO) at 120 °C for 60 min and under microwave irradiation (MIO) for 6 min. The molecular structure features were revealed by vibrational infrared molecular spectroscopy. RESULTS: The results showed that rumen degradability of dry matter, protein and starch was significantly lower (P <0.05) for MIO compared to control and DO treatments. A higher protein α-helix to β-sheet and a lower amide I to starch area ratio were observed for MIO compared to DO and/or raw treatment. A negative correlation (−0.99, P < 0.01) was observed between α-helix or amide I to starch area ratio and dry matter. A positive correlation (0.99, P < 0.01) was found between protein β-sheet and crude protein. CONCLUSION: The results reveal that oat grains are more sensitive to microwave irradiation than dry heating in terms of protein and starch molecular profile and nutrient availability in ruminants

    Characterization of physiochemical and nutrient profiles in canola feedstocks and co-products from bio-oil processing: impacted by source origin

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    Objective The objective of this study was to characterize physiochemical and nutrient profiles of feedstock and co-products from canola bio-oil processing that were impacted by source origin. The feedstocks and co-products (mash, pellet) were randomly collected from five different bio-oil processing plants with five different batches of samples in each bio-processing plant in Canada (CA) and China (CH). Methods The detailed chemical composition, energy profile, total digestible nutrient (TDN), protein and carbohydrate subfractions, and their degradation and digestion (CNCPS6.5) were determined. Results The results showed that TDN1x was similar in meals between CA and CH. CH meals and feedstock had higher, truly digestible crude protein (tdCP) and neutral detergent fiber (tdNDF) than CA while CA had higher truly digestible non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNFC). The metabolizable energy (ME3x), net energy (NELp3x, NEm3x, and NEg3x) were similar in meals between CA and CH. No differences were observed in energy profile of seeds between CA and CH. The protein and carbohydrate subfractions of seeds within CH were similar. The results also showed that pelleting of meals affected protein sub-fractionation of CA meals, except rapidly degradable fractions (PB1), rumen degradable (RDPB1) and undegrdable PB1 (RUPB1), and intestinal digestible PB1 (DIGPB1). Canola meals were different in the soluble (PA2) and slowly degradable fractions (PB2) between CA and CH. The carbohydrate fractions of intermediately degradable fraction (CB2), slowly degradable fraction (CB3), and undegradable fraction (CC) were different among CH meals. CH presented higher soluble carbohydrate (CA4) and lower CB2, and CC than CA meals. Conclusion The results indicated that although the seeds were similar within and between CA and CH, either oil-extraction process or meal pelleting seemed to have generated significantly different aspects in physiochemical and nutrient profiles in the meals. Nutritionists and producers need to regularly check nutritional value of meal mash and pellets for precision feeding

    Effects of fermentation on protein profile of coffee by-products and its relationship with internal protein structure measured by vibrational spectroscopy

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    Objective To our knowledge, there are few studies on the correlation between internal structure of fermented products and nutrient delivery from by-products from coffee processing in the ruminant system. The objective of this project was to use advanced mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopic technique (ATR-FT/IR) to reveal interactive correlation between protein internal structure and ruminant-relevant protein and energy metabolic profiles of by-products from coffee processing affected by added-microorganism fermentation duration. Methods The by-products from coffee processing were fermented using commercial fermentation product, called Saus Burger Pakan, consisting of various microorganisms: cellulolytic, lactic acid, amylolytic, proteolytic, and xylanolytic microbes, for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Protein chemical profiles, Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System crude protein and CHO subfractions, and ruminal degradation and intestinal digestion of protein were evaluated. The attenuated total reflectance-Ft/IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study protein structural features of spectra that were affected by added microorganism fermentation duration. The molecular spectral analyses were carried using OMNIC software. Molecular spectral analysis parameters in fermented and non-fermented by-products from coffee processing included: Amide I area (AIA), Amide II (AIIA) area, Amide I heigh (AIH), Amide II height (AIIH), α-helix height (αH), β-sheet height (βH), AIA to AIIA ratio, AIH to AIIH ratio, and αH to βH ratio. The relationship between protein structure spectral profiles of by-products from coffee processing and protein related metabolic features in ruminant were also investigated. Results Fermentation decreased rumen degradable protein and increased rumen undegradable protein of by-products from coffee processing (p<0.05), indicating more protein entering from rumen to the small intestine for animal use. The fermentation duration significantly impacted (p<0.05) protein structure spectral features. Fermentation tended to increase (p<0.10) AIA and AIH as well as β-sheet height which all are significantly related to the protein level. Conclusion Protein structure spectral profiles of by-product form coffee processing could be utilized as potential evaluators to estimate protein related chemical profile and protein metabolic characteristics in ruminant system

    Detect protein molecular structure of canola meal and presscake due to processing conditions, in relation with their protein digestive behavior and nutritive value.

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    Non-Peer ReviewedCanola is a major oil-seed crop in western Canada and was developed from rapeseed by Canadian plant breeders in 1970’s. The intermediate product in the manufacturing process of canola oil and canola meal called canola presscake. Heat treatment of animal feed has been employed to improve protein utilization. Research studies had been showed that heat processing affected protein molecular structures, which may influence protein quality and availability. However, studies on protein structures due to processing conditions, in relation to nutritive value and digestive behavior of protein are extremely rare. Results indicated that the yellow-seeded canola meal had higher crude protein and low fiber content compared to the brown-seeded one. Furthermore, since presscake has not passed through the solvent extraction process had a lower protein but higher oil content than canola meal and is a potential great energy supplement source for ruminants. The results of this study indicated the possibility of using Fourier-transformed infrared-vibration spectroscopy (FT/IR), in order to characterize rapidly feed structures at molecular level and also relate nutrient utilization to the specific chemical make-up of intrinsic structures of the feed