3,736 research outputs found

    Hemodynamic responses to low-load blood flow restriction and unrestricted high-load resistance exercise in older women

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    Introduction: Blood flow restriction (BFR) during low-load resistance exercise increases muscle size similarly to high-load training, and may be an alternative to lifting heavy weights for older people at risk of sarcopenia. However, few studies have addressed the safety of such exercise in older people, or whether this is impacted by the actual exercises performed during training. This study aimed to compare the acute hemodynamic and perceptual responses during low-load BFR exercise to unrestricted low-load and high-load exercise in older women, and to determine whether these responses depend on the type of exercise performed. Methods: Fifteen older women (63–75 year) were assessed for maximal strength (1RM) in the leg press and leg extension. Participants then completed three protocols using these exercises in a randomized order: (1) low-load exercise (LL); (2) low-load exercise with BFR (LLBFR), and; (3) high-load exercise (HL). Blood pressure was assessed at baseline and after each set, and impedance cardiography measured cardiovascular function during trials. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle soreness scores were obtained throughout trials. Results: Baseline hemodynamic values were consistent between trials. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were higher in LLBFR compared with HL and LL (p = 0.021). The LL condition resulted in lower heart rate (p = 0.002) and rate-pressure product (p = 0.011) responses compared with LLBFR and HL. The leg press generally conferred greater hemodynamic and perceptual demands than the leg extension for all conditions (p = 0.002). RPE was lower during LL compared with LLBFR and HL (p = 0.008), and there were no between-condition differences in perceived muscle soreness. Conclusion: The blood pressure data indicate that LLBFR causes greater stress on the vasculature than LL and HL exercise, and that the leg press was generally more demanding than the leg extension. While additional cardiovascular measures were similar between LLBFR and HL conditions, caution should be advised when prescribing BFR exercise for individuals with compromised cardiac or vascular function. Nevertheless, LLBFR and HL exercise were perceived similarly, indicating that BFR training may be viable for healthy older people

    Positive blood culture detection in time series data using a BiLSTM network

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    The presence of bacteria or fungi in the bloodstream of patients is abnormal and can lead to life-threatening conditions. A computational model based on a bidirectional long short-term memory artificial neural network, is explored to assist doctors in the intensive care unit to predict whether examination of blood cultures of patients will return positive. As input it uses nine monitored clinical parameters, presented as time series data, collected from 2177 ICU admissions at the Ghent University Hospital. Our main goal is to determine if general machine learning methods and more specific, temporal models, can be used to create an early detection system. This preliminary research obtains an area of 71.95% under the precision recall curve, proving the potential of temporal neural networks in this context

    Active thermo-reflectometry for absolute temperature measurement by infrared thermography on specular materials

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    AbstractKnowledge of material emissivity maps and their true temperatures is of great interest for contactless process monitoring and control with infrared cameras when strong heat transfer and temperature change are involved. This approach is always followed by emissivity or reflections issues. In this work, we describe the development of a contactless infrared imaging technique based on the pyro-reflectometry approach and a specular model of the material reflection in order to overcome emissivities and reflections problems. This approach enables in situ and real-time identification of emissivity fields and autocalibration of the radiative intensity leaving the sample by using a black body equivalent ratio. This is done to obtain the absolute temperature field of any specular material using the infrared wavelength. The presented set up works for both camera and pyrometer regardless of the spectral range. The proposed method is evaluated at room temperature with several heterogeneous samples covering a large range of emissivity values. From these emissivity fields, raw and heterogeneous measured radiative fluxes are transformed into complete absolute temperature fields

    High power density laser estimation using quantitative thermal imaging method

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    The knowledge of the amplitude and the spatial distribution of an excitation flux is of great interest for the quantification of heat sources. In this work, the development of a non-contact imaging powermeter based on the association of a bolometer with an infrared camera is described. This powermeter allows, thanks to infrared thermographic measurements and image processing methods, the quantitative estimation of the spatial distribution of the power of the flux delivered by a high-power laser. First, the experimental setup used is described. Then, the complete model- ling of the heat transfer within the bolometer using the 3D thermal quadrupole formalism is presented. After that, an inverse method based on the Wiener filter in Fourier-Laplace transform spaces to estimate the spatial distribution of the power flux is described. Finally, power estimation results using two metallic plates as a bolometer are presented and discusse

    Allele-specific disparity in breast cancer

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    Background In a cancer cell the number of copies of a locus may vary due to amplification and deletion and these variations are denoted as copy number alterations (CNAs). We focus on the disparity of CNAs in tumour samples, which were compared to those in blood in order to identify the directional loss of heterozygosity. Methods We propose a numerical algorithm and apply it to data from the Illumina 109K-SNP array on 112 samples from breast cancer patients. B-allele frequency (BAF) and log R ratio (LRR) of Illumina were used to estimate Euclidian distances. For each locus, we compared genotypes in blood and tumour for subset of samples being heterozygous in blood. We identified loci showing preferential disparity from heterozygous toward either the A/B-allele homozygous (allelic disparity). The chi-squared and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used to examine whether there is an association between high levels of disparity in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and molecular, clinical and tumour-related parameters. To identify pathways and network functions over-represented within the resulting gene sets, we used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results To identify loci with a high level of disparity, we selected SNPs 1) with a substantial degree of disparity and 2) with substantial frequency (at least 50% of the samples heterozygous for the respective locus). We report the overall difference in disparity in high-grade tumours compared to low-grade tumours (p-value < 0.001) and significant associations between disparity in multiple single loci and clinical parameters. The most significantly associated network functions within the genes represented in the loci of disparity were identified, including lipid metabolism, small-molecule biochemistry, and nervous system development and function. No evidence for over-representation of directional disparity in a list of stem cell genes was obtained, however genes appeared to be more often altered by deletion than by amplification. Conclusions Our data suggest that directional loss and amplification exist in breast cancer. These are highly associated with grade, which may indicate that they are enforced with increasing number of cell divisions. Whether there is selective pressure for some loci to be preferentially amplified or deleted remains to be confirmed

    Understanding mechanobiology in cultured endothelium: A review of the orbital shaker method

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    A striking feature of atherosclerosis is its highly non-uniform distribution within the arterial tree. This has been attributed to variation in the haemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) experienced by endothelial cells, but the WSS characteristics that are important and the mechanisms by which they lead to disease remain subjects of intensive investigation despite decades of research. In vivo evidence suggests that multidirectional WSS is highly atherogenic. This possibility is increasingly being studied by culturing endothelial cells in wells that are swirled on an orbital shaker. The method is simple and cost effective, has high throughput and permits chronic exposure, but interpretation of the results can be difficult because the fluid mechanics are complex; hitherto, their description has largely been restricted to the engineering literature. Here we review the findings of such studies, which indicate that putatively atherogenic flow characteristics occur at the centre of the well whilst atheroprotective ones occur towards the edge, and we describe simple mathematical methods for choosing experimental variables that avoid resonance, wave breaking and uncovering of the cells. We additionally summarise a large number of studies showing that endothelium cultured at the centre of the well expresses more pro-inflammatory and fewer homeostatic genes, has higher permeability, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence, and shows more endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition than endothelium at the edge. This simple method, when correctly interpreted, has the potential to greatly increase our understanding of the homeostatic and pathogenic mechanobiology of endothelial cells and may help identify new therapeutic targets in vascular disease

    Constitution of a catchment virtual observatory for sharing flow and transport models outputs

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    International audiencePredicting hydrological catchment behaviour based on measurable (and preferably widely available) catchment characteristics has been one of the main goals of hydrological modelling. Residence time distributions provide synoptic information about catchment functioning and can be useful metrics to predict their behaviours. Moreover, residence time distributions highlight a wide range of characteristic scales (spatial and temporal) and mixing processes. However, catchment-specific heterogeneity means that the link between residence time distributions and catchment characteristics is complex. Investigating this link for a wide range of catchments could reveal the role of topography, geology, land-use, climate and other factors in controlling catchment hydrology. Meaningful comparison is often challenging given the diversity of data and model structures and formats. To address this need, we are introducing a new virtual platform called Catchment virtual Observatory for Sharing flow and transport models outputs (COnSOrT). The goal of COnSOrT is to promote catchment intercomparison by sharing calibrated model outputs. Compiling commensurable results in COnSOrT will help evaluate model performance, quantify inter-catchment controls on hydrology, and identify research gaps and priorities in catchment science. Researchers interested in sharing or using calibrated model results are invited to participate in the virtual observatory. Participants may test post-processing methods on a wide range of catchment environments to evaluate the generality of their findings
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