53 research outputs found

    The effect of retirement on biomedical and behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disease

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    Retirement is a major life event potentially associated with changes in relevant risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. This study analyzes the effect of retirement on behavioral and biomedical risk factors for chronic disease, together with subjective health parameters using Southern German epidemiological data. We used panel data from the KORA cohort study, consisting of 11,168 observations for individuals 45–80 years old. Outcomes included health behavior (alcohol, smoking, physical activity), biomedical risk factors (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol/HDL quotient, systolic/diastolic blood pressure), and subjective health (SF12 mental and physical, self-rated health). We applied a parametric regression discontinuity design based on age thresholds for pension eligibility. Robust results after p-value corrections for multiple testing showed an increase in BMI in early retirees (at the age of 60) [β = 1.11, corrected p-val. < 0.05] and an increase in CHO/HDL in regular retirees (age 65) [β = 0.47, corrected p-val. < 0.05]. Stratified analyses indicate that the increase in BMI might be driven by women and low-educated individuals retiring early, despite increases in the level of physical activity. The increase in CHO/HDL might be driven by men retiring regularly, alongside an increase in subjective physical health. Blood pressure also increased, but the effect differs by retirement timing and sex and is not always robust to sensitivity analysis checks. Our study indicates that retirement has an impact on different risk factors for chronic disease, depending on timing, gender and education. Regular male, early female, and low-educated retirees should be further investigated as potential high-risk groups for worsening risk factors after retirement. Future research should investigate if and how these results are linked: in fact, especially in the last two groups, the increases in leisure time physical activity might not be enough to compensate for the loss of work related physical activity, leading thus to an increase in BMI

    Change in physical activity after diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension: results from an observational population-based cohort study

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    Background: Chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus or hypertension are a major public health challenge. Irregular physical activity (PA) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for chronic conditions and their complications. However, engaging in regular PA is a challenge for many individuals. The literature suggests that a diagnosis of a disease might serve as a promising point in time to change health behavior. This study investigates whether a diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension is associated with changes in PA. Methods: Analyses are based on 4261 participants of the population-based KORA S4 study (1999-2001) and its subsequent 7-and 14-year follow-ups. Information on PA and incident diagnoses of diabetes or hypertension was assessed via standardized interviews. Change in PA was regressed upon diagnosis with diabetes or hypertension, using logistic regression models. Models were stratified into active and inactive individuals at baseline to avoid ceiling and floor effects or regression to the mean. Results: Active participants at baseline showed higher odds (OR = 2.16 [1.20;3.89]) for becoming inactive after a diabetes diagnosis than those without a diabetes diagnosis. No other significant association was observed. Discussion: As PA is important for the management of diabetes or hypertension, ways to increase or maintain PA levels in newly-diagnosed patients are important. Communication strategies might be crucial, and practitioners and health insurance companies could play a key role in raising awareness

    <i>Mycobacterium chelonae</i> associated with tumor-like skin and oral masses in farmed Russian sturgeons (<i>Acipenser gueldenstaedtii</i>)

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    Background: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria responsible for piscine mycobacteriosis usually produce visceral granulomas in both freshwater and marine species. In this study, the first occurrence of Mycobacterium chelonae associated with tumor-like lesions in the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is reported. Fifteen sturgeons from an Italian fish farm showing skin and oral cauliflower-like masses were investigated by histopathology, bacterial culture and molecular analyses. Results: A total of 20 masses different in size located in the mouth and in pectoral and caudal fins (characterized by abundant calcium deposits and by mild to moderate granulomatous inflammation) were observed with a significant different degree of histological severity. All internal organs of the fish were negative for mycobacteria, Ziehl-Neelsen was positive in only one of the oral masses, whereas bacterial and PCR analyses detected the presence of M. chelonae for almost all the skin and oral masses. Based on these results, a calcinosis of dystrophic origin associated with a chronic granulomatous inflammation was considered as a primary diagnosis consequent to tissue injury in areas susceptible to trauma. Conclusions: We hypothesized that the occurrence of M. chelonae in farmed sturgeons was only a secondary event related to its presence in a stressful rearing environment and subsequent to a dystrophic calcinosis occurred in previously damaged tissues

    Uma análise de Avaliações Online sobre B&Bs e Albergues em Portugal

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    Researches about User-Generated Content (UGC) have gained attention in the fields of Tourism and Hospitality in the last years. This study focus on online reviews about alternative accommodations – B&Bs and Inns. The development of this work was realized applying inductive methods and using an exploratory approach. We collected a sample of 450 online reviews and analyzed them segment by segment, making a total of 4621 segments. We used the Appraisal Theory to assess what attitudes online reviewers are expressing about B&Bs and Inns in Lisbon. We verified that positive appreciation is the most frequent attitude while expressions of affect and judgment are more rare. This study contributes to the academy as it brings a new parameter of analysis of UGC using the Appraisal Theory in the field of Hospitality.Investigaciones sobre el contenido generado por los usuarios han ganado la atención en las áreas de Turismo y Hospitalidad en los últimos años. El estudio centra en la revisión en línea sobre alojamiento alternativo - B&B y hostales. El desarrollo de este trabajo ha sido la aplicación de métodos inductivos y utilizando un enfoque exploratorio. Hemos recogido una muestra de 450 comentarios en línea y los analizamos por segmentos, haciendo un total de 4621 segmentos. Se utilizó la teoría de la valoración para determinar qué actitudes revisores en línea están expresando sobre B&B y hostales en Lisboa. Verificamos que la apreciación positiva es la actitud más expresada mientras que las expresiones de afecto y juicio son menos frecuentes. Este estudio contribuye a la academia, ya que trae un nuevo parámetro de análisis de UGC utilizando la Teoría de evaluación en el campo de la hospitalidad.Pesquisas sobre o Conteúdo Gerado pelo Usuário (CGU) ganharam atenção nas áreas de Turismo e Hotelaria nos últimos anos. Este estudo foca em avaliações on-line sobre hospedagens alternativas - B&Bs e albergues. O desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi realizado com a aplicação de métodos indutivos e usando uma abordagem exploratória. Foi coletada uma amostra de 450 avaliações online e analisados segmento por segmento, em um total de 4.621 segmentos. Foi utilizada a Teoria de Avaliação para avaliar as atitudes que os avaliadores on-line estão expressando sobre B&Bs e albergues em Lisboa. Verificou-se que a apreciação positiva é a atitude mais frequente enquanto expressões de afeto e julgamento são mais raras. Este estudo contribui para a academia, pois traz um novo parâmetro de análise do CGU utilizando a Teoria de Avaliação na área de Hotelaria

    Floral features, pollination biology and breeding system of Chloraea membranacea Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Chloraeinae)

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    Background and Aims: The pollination biology of very few Chloraeinae orchids has been studied to date, and most of these studies have focused on breeding systems and fruiting success. Chloraea membranacea Lindl. is one of the few non-Andean species in this group, and the aim of the present contribution is to elucidate the pollination biology, functional floral morphology and breeding system in native populations of this species from Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Methods:Floral features were examined using light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The breeding system was studied by means of controlled pollinations applied to plants, either bagged in the field or cultivated in a glasshouse. Pollination observations were made on natural populations, and pollinator behaviour was recorded by means of photography and video.Key ResultsBoth Argentinean and Brazilian plants were very consistent regarding all studied features. Flowers are nectarless but scented and anatomical analysis indicates that the dark, clavate projections on the adaxial labellar surface are osmophores (scent-producing glands). The plants are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The fruit-set obtained through cross-pollination and manual self-pollination was almost identical. The main pollinators are male and female Halictidae bees that withdraw the pollinarium when leaving the flower. Remarkably, the bees tend to visit more than one flower per inflorescence, thus promoting self-pollination (geitonogamy). Fruiting success in Brazilian plants reached 60·78 in 2010 and 46 in 2011. Some pollinarium-laden female bees were observed transferring pollen from the carried pollinarium to their hind legs. The use of pollen by pollinators is a rare record for Orchidaceae in general.ConclusionsChloraea membrancea is pollinated by deceit. Together, self-compatibility, pollinarium texture, pollinator abundance and behaviour may account for the observed high fruiting success. It is suggested that a reappraisal and re-analysis of important flower features in Chloraeinae orchids is necessary.Fil: Sanguinetti, Agustin. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; BrasilFil: Pedron, Marcelo. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; BrasilFil: Davies, Kevin L.. Cardiff University; Reino UnidoFil: Ferreira, Pedro Maria De Abreu. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; BrasilFil: Maldonado, Sara Beatriz. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria; ArgentinaFil: Singer, Rodrigo Bustos. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Brasi

    Prevalence of self-reported lifetime medical diagnosis of depression in Brazil : analysis of data from the 2019 Brazilian National Health Survey

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    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with the lifetime medical diagnosis of depression in Brazil. Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Analysis of data from the 2019 Brazilian National Health Survey. Participants: 90 846 individuals aged ≥15 years were included. Outcome measure: The self-reported medical diagnosis of depression at some point in one’s life was the main outcome. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs were calculated by Poisson regression with robust variance. The independent variables included the geographical area of residence, sociodemographic characteristics, current smoking status, alcohol abuse, daily screen time, and the presence of physical disorders and mental health comorbidities. Results: The self-reported lifetime prevalence of medical diagnosis of depression was 9.9% (95% CI 9.5% to 10.2%). The probability of having received a medical diagnosis of depression was higher among urban residents (PR 1.23; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35); females (2.75; 2.52 to 2.99); those aged 20–29 years (1.17; 0.91 to 1.51), 30–39 years (1.73; 1.36 to 2.19), 40–49 years (2.30; 1.81 to 2.91), 50–59 years (2.32; 1.84 to 2.93) and 60–69 years (2.27; 1.78 to 2.90) compared with those under 20 years; white-skinned people (0.69 (0.61 to 0.78) for black-skinned people and 0.74 (0.69 to 0.80) for indigenous, yellow and brown-skinned people compared with white-skinned people); those with fewer years of education (1.33(1.12 to 1.58) among those with 9–11 years, 1.14 (0.96 to 1.34) among those with 1–8 years and 1.29 (1.11 to 1.50) among those with 0 years compared with those with ≥12 years of education); those who were separated/ divorced (1.43; 1.29 to 1.59), widowed (1.06; 0.95 to 1.19) and single (1.01; 0.93 to 1.10) compared with married people; smokers (1.26; 1.14 to 1.38); heavy screen users (1.31; 1.16 to 1.48) compared with those whose usage was <6 hours/day; those with a medical diagnosis of a physical disorder (1.80; 1.67 to 1.97); and individuals with a medical diagnosis of a mental health comorbidity (5.05; 4.68 to 5.46). Conclusion: This nationwide population-based study of self-reported lifetime medical diagnosis of depression in Brazil showed that the prevalence was almost 10%. Considering the current Brazilian population, this prevalence corresponds to more than 2 million people who have been diagnosed with depression at some point in their lives