782 research outputs found

    Sedentary behaviors and adiposity in young people: causality and conceptual model

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    Research on sedentary behavior and adiposity in youth dates back to the 1980s. Sedentary behaviors, usually screen time, can be associated with adiposity. Although the association usually is small but significant, the field is complex, and results are dependent on what sedentary behaviors are assessed and may be mediated and moderated by other behaviors

    Interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviours in young people: A review of reviews

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    Background: Leisure time is increasingly spent in sedentary pursuits such as screen-viewing (eg, television/DVD viewing and computer use), motorised travel, school/work and sitting-based socialising (eg, social media and chatting). Sedentary screen time, particularly TV, appears to play an important role in the aetiology of obesity due to its co-occurrence with other unhealthy behaviours such as snacking on energy-dense foods, low levels of physical activity and inadequate sleep. More information is needed on how to reduce sedentary behaviours. Most interventions have focused on young people and a number of systematic reviews exist on this topic. Objective: To synthesise systematic reviews and metaanalyses of interventions aimed at decreasing sedentary behaviours among children and adolescents. Methods: Papers were located from computerised and manual searches. Included articles were English language systematic reviews or meta-analyses of interventions aiming at reducing sedentary behaviour in children (<11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Results: Ten papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. All reviews concluded some level of effectiveness in reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour. When an effect size was reported, there was a small but significant reduction in sedentary time (highest effect size=-0.29; CI -0.35 to -0.22). Moderator analyses showed a trend favouring interventions with children younger than 6 years. Effective strategies include the involvement of family, behavioural interventions and electronic TV monitoring devices. Conclusions: Results from systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that interventions to reduce children's sedentary behaviour have a small but significant effect. Future research should expand these findings examining interventions targeting different types of sedentary behaviours and the effectiveness of specific behaviour change techniques across different contexts and settings

    The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among adolescent girls: A meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Research has shown that a clear decline in physical activity among girls starting in early adolescence. Therefore, adolescent girls have been identified as a key target population for physical activity behavior change. The quantification of intervention effectiveness for this group has not been previously reported in a meta-analysis, and this therefore was the objective of the current meta-analysis. STUDY SELECTION: Included were interventions in which the main component, or 1 of the components, was aimed at promoting physical activity through behavior change in any setting. Interventions had to include a non-physical activity control group or comparison group, and include a quantitative outcome assessment of physical activity behavior in girls aged 12 to 18 years. DATA SOURCES: Science Direct, PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, and EPPI Centre databases were searched up to and including May 2013. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Forty-five studies (k = 34 independent samples) were eligible from an initial 13,747 references. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The average treatment effect for adolescent girls involved in physical activity interventions was significant but small (g = 0.350, 95% confidence interval 0.12, 0.58, P < .001). Moderator analyses showed larger effects for interventions that were theory based, performed in schools, were girls only, with younger girls, used multicomponent strategies, and involved targeting both physical activity and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase physical activity in adolescent girls show small but significant effects, suggesting that behavior change may be challenging. Results suggest some approaches that appear to be successful

    Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents

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    Background: Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eating behaviours among Australian adolescents.Method: Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline.Results: Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit.Conclusion: Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents.<br /

    Behavioural nutrition and physical activity in young people : the role of the family

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    The increasing evidence of associations between inactivity and poor diets in young people and both immediate and long term health implications is of public health concern. There is a need to further understanding of young people's health behaviours, to facilitate the development of behaviour change strategies promoting healthy behaviours. This thesis, provides seven studies focusing on the family environment and the influences that the family and parents have on young people's physical activity and dietary behaviours. Chapter 2.1 describes a systematic review of family correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents. Chapter 2.2 describes a systematic review of family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. Systematic reviews are an essential component of evidence-based practice, and both reviews were conducted to examine the state of the current literature examining family environmental influences on aspects of young people's dietary behaviours. In the context of this thesis, these systematic reviews are of primary importance as they were instrumental in shaping and informing the direction of the research described in later chapters. Chapter 3 broadens the investigation of young people's health behaviours and describes two cross-sectional studies examining both physical activity and dietary behaviours. Chapter 3.1 describes a study examining patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours. This study describes how adolescents are at risk of not meeting the recommendations for multiple health behaviours (e.g. physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and breakfast consumption). Chapter 3.2 was designed to fill several gaps in the literature about the correlates of multiple health behaviours and also to gain a greater insight into the transferability of parental behaviours to different health behaviours in children. Chapter 3.2 describes a study examining family influences on young peoples fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity, and on combinations of these behaviours (e.g. high physical activity and low fruit and vegetable consumption). Chapter 4.1 was designed to fill gaps in the literature by examining the association between family circumstance (parental marital status, maternal education, maternal employment status, number of brothers and number of sisters) and adolescent dietary behaviour, and 2-year change in dietary behaviour. Chapter 4.2 was designed to fill gaps in the literature by examining the relationship between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Together, the six studies described above established a rationale and informed the content of the pilot family-based intervention described in Chapter 5. This thesis found that particular aspects of the family environment and particular attributes of parenting were associated with positive physical activity and dietary behaviours of young people. Such findings add considerably to the existing literature and are important as they suggest that even as young people age, the family environment and the emotional context within which parent-child interactions occur are vital for positive health behaviours. Targeting such facets of the family and parenting holds great potential for behaviour change strategies.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Maternal and best friends\u27 influences on meal-skipping behaviours

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    Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health.&nbsp;Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined&nbsp;maternal and best friends&rsquo; influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was&nbsp;assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria,&nbsp;Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food,&nbsp;eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with&nbsp;meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to&nbsp;skip lunch (OR &frac14; 2&middot;01, 95% CI 1&middot;33, 3&middot;04 and OR &frac14; 1&middot;93, 95% CI 1&middot;41, 2&middot;65; P,0&middot;001). Boys and girls who perceived that their mother&nbsp;often skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR &frac14; 1&middot;48, 95% CI 1&middot;01, 2&middot;15; P,0&middot;05 and OR &frac14; 1&middot;93, 95% CI 1&middot;42, 2&middot;59;&nbsp;P,0&middot;001) and lunch (OR &frac14; 2&middot;05, 95% CI 1&middot;35, 3&middot;12 and OR &frac14; 2&middot;02, 95% CI 1&middot;43, 2&middot;86; P,0&middot;001). Educating adolescents on how to&nbsp;assess and interpret unhealthy eating behaviours that they observe from significant others may be one nutrition promotion strategy to&nbsp;reduce meal-skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture&nbsp;that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health&nbsp;may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy.</span

    The effects of standing desks within the school classroom: A systematic review

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    © 2016 The Authors. Background: The school classroom environment often dictates that pupils sit for prolonged periods which may be detrimental for children's health. Replacing traditional school desks with standing desks may reduce sitting time and provide other benefits. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the impact of standing desks within the school classroom. Method: Studies published in English up to and including June 2015 were located from online databases and manual searches. Studies implementing standing desks within the school classroom, including children and/or adolescents (aged 5-18 years) which assessed the impact of the intervention using a comparison group or pre-post design were included. Results: Eleven studies were eligible for inclusion; all were set in primary/elementary schools, and most were conducted in the USA (n = 6). Most were non-randomised controlled trials (n = 7), with durations ranging from a single time point to five months. Energy expenditure (measured over 2 h during school day mornings) was the only outcome that consistently demonstrated positive results (three out of three studies). Evidence for the impact of standing desks on sitting, standing, and step counts was mixed. Evidence suggested that implementing standing desks in the classroom environment appears to be feasible, and not detrimental to learning. Conclusions: Interventions utilising standing desks in classrooms demonstrate positive effects in some key outcomes but the evidence lacks sufficient quality and depth to make strong conclusions. Future studies using randomised control trial designs with larger samples, longer durations, with sitting, standing time and academic achievement as primary outcomes, are warranted

    Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

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    BackgroundTime spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people\u27s television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child\u27s television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media). The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment.MethodsParents of children aged 5-6 years (\u27younger\u27 children, n = 430) and 10-12 years (\u27older children\u27, n = 640) reported usual duration of their child\u27s television (TV) viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group.ResultsChildren of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p &lt; 0.01, for younger and older children respectively). Parental concern was positively associated with younger children eating dinner in front of the television, and with parental restriction of sedentary behaviours and offering sedentary activities (i.e. TV viewing or computer use) as a reward for good behaviour among older and young children. Furthermore, parents of older children who were concerned had fewer televisions in the home and a lower count of sedentary equipment in the home.ConclusionsChildren of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental approaches despite these concerns. Interventions targeting concerned parents may be an innovative way of reaching children most in need of strategies to reduce their television viewing and harnessing this parental concern may offer considerable opportunity to change the family and home environment.<br /
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