12 research outputs found

    A National Wastewater Monitoring Program for a better understanding of public health: A case study using the Australian Census

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    Wastewater contains a large range of biological and chemical markers of human activity and exposures. Through systematic collection and analysis of these markers within wastewater samples it is possible to measure the public health of whole populations. The analysis of effluent and biosolids can also be used to understand the release of chemicals from wastewater treatment plants into the environment. Wastewater analysis and comparison with catchment specific data (e.g. demographics) however remains largely unexplored. This manuscript describes a national wastewater monitoring study that combines influent, effluent and biosolids sampling with the Australian Census. An archiving program allows estimation of per capita exposure to and consumption of chemicals, public health information, as well as per capita release of chemicals into the environment. The paper discusses the study concept, critical steps in setting up a coordinated national approach and key logistical and other considerations with a focus on lessons learnt and future applications. The unique combination of archived samples, analytical data and associated census-derived population data will provide a baseline dataset that has wide and potentially increasing applications across many disciplines that include public health, epidemiology, criminology, toxicology and sociology

    Trends in therapeutic and prevention strategies for management of bovine mastitis: an overview

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    Mastitis is one of the most economically significant diseases for the dairy industry for backyard farmers in developing countries and high producing herds worldwide. Two of the major factors impeding reduction in the incidence of this disease is [a] the lack of availability of an effective vaccine capable of protecting against multiple etiological agents and [b] propensity of some of the etiological agents to develop persistent antibiotic resistance in biofilms. This is further complicated by the continuing revolving shift in the predominant etiological agents of mastitis, depending upon a multitude of factors such as variability in hygienic practices on farms, easy access leading to overuse of appropriate or inappropriate antibiotics at suboptimal concentrations, particularly in developing countries, and lack of compliance with the recommended treatment schedules. Regardless, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis followed by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae has become the predominant etiological agents of bovine mastitis followed Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Klebsiella pneumonia and the newly emerging Mycoplasma bovis. Current approaches being pursued to reduce the negative economic impact of this disease are through early diagnosis of infection, immediate treatment with an antibiotic found to either inhibit or kill the pathogen(s) in vitro using planktonic cultures and the use of the currently marketed vaccines regardless of their demonstrated effectiveness. Given the limitations of breeding programs, including genetic selection to improve resistance against infectious diseases including mastitis, it is imperative to have the availability of an effective broad-spectrum, preferably cross-protective, vaccine capable of protecting against bovine mastitis for reduction in the incidence of bovine mastitis, as well as interrupting the potential cross-species transmission to humans. This overview highlights the major etiological agents, factors affecting susceptibility to mastitis, and the current status of antibiotic-based therapies and prototype vaccine candidates or commercially available vaccines against bovine mastitis as potential preventative strategies

    Conservation implications of long-term changes detected in a lowland heath plant metacommunity

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    Conservation management that is focused on the scale of individual habitat patches rarely considers the implications for conservation of metacommunities at the regional scale. Here we examine the conservation implications of long-term changes identified in a vascular plant metacommunity associated with lowland heathland in Dorset, UK. This was achieved by re-surveying 150 patches that were first surveyed in the 1930s and assessing changes in species distributions, diversity, community composition and metacommunity structure. Results were compared for two sets: i) all remaining heathland patches and ii) intact heaths, excluding partly degraded sites. Overall, patterns of change were similar for the two sets. Values of ╬│ and ╬▒-diversity both decreased over time as individual patches shifted towards either woodland or improved grassland communities. No significant change in ╬▓-diversity occurred. Both sets lost metacommunity structure over time, suggesting a change in structuring processes. These changes were attributable both to management regimes adopted at local sites, relating to their differing ownership, and to wider processes of environmental change. These results highlight the need to place site-based conservation actions in the context of regional-scale processes, to ensure the long-term conservation of metacommunity structure and function

    A national wastewater monitoring program for a better understanding of public health: a case study using the Australian census.

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    Wastewater contains a large range of biological and chemical markers of human activity and exposures. Through systematic collection and analysis of these markers within wastewater samples it is possible to measure the public health of whole populations. The analysis of effluent and biosolids can also be used to understand the release of chemicals from wastewater treatment plants into the environment. Wastewater analysis and comparison with catchment specific data (e.g. demographics) however remains largely unexplored. This manuscript describes a national wastewater monitoring study that combines influent, effluent and biosolids sampling with the Australian Census. An archiving program allows estimation of per capita exposure to and consumption of chemicals, public health information, as well as per capita release of chemicals into the environment. The paper discusses the study concept, critical steps in setting up a coordinated national approach and key logistical and other considerations with a focus on lessons learnt and future applications. The unique combination of archived samples, analytical data and associated census-derived population data will provide a baseline dataset that has wide and potentially increasing applications across many disciplines that include public health, epidemiology, criminology, toxicology and sociology.ISSN:0160-4120ISSN:1873-675

    A National Wastewater Monitoring Program for a better understanding of public health: a case study using the Australian Census

    Get PDF
    Wastewater contains a large range of biological and chemical markers of human activity and exposures. Through systematic collection and analysis of these markers within wastewater samples it is possible to measure the public health of whole populations. The analysis of effluent and biosolids can also be used to understand the release of chemicals from wastewater treatment plants into the environment. Wastewater analysis and comparison with catchment specific data (e.g. demographics) however remains largely unexplored. This manuscript describes a national wastewater monitoring study that combines influent, effluent and biosolids sampling with the Australian Census. An archiving program allows estimation of per capita exposure to and consumption of chemicals, public health information, as well as per capita release of chemicals into the environment. The paper discusses the study concept, critical steps in setting up a coordinated national approach and key logistical and other considerations with a focus on lessons learnt and future applications. The unique combination of archived samples, analytical data and associated census-derived population data will provide a baseline dataset that has wide and potentially increasing applications across many disciplines that include public health, epidemiology, criminology, toxicology and sociology
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