86 research outputs found

    Cell wall functional activity and metal accumulation of halophytic plant species Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima on the White Sea littoral zone (NW Russia)

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    The presented study supplements the knowledge on ion-exchange capacity, swelling capacity (elasticity) of the plant cell wall, and the accumulation of heavy metals in halophytic species Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima in the tidal zone of the White Sea western coast. The littoral soils of the coastal territories are sandy or rocky-sandy, medium and slightly saline with poor content of organic substances, Mn, Zn, Ni, and Pb. Studied soils are considered as uncontaminated by heavy metals because they contain background amounts of Fe and Cu. Sea water is significantly polluted by Fe (3.8 MPC) and Ni (55 MPC), has poor content of Zn and Cu and background level of Pb and Mn. The coastal dominant plant species P. maritima and T. maritima were characterized by intensive metals accumulation which was reflected in the coefficient of biological absorption (CBA) of metal by a whole plant. For P. maritima the following metal accumulation series was obtained: Cu (3.29)> Zn (2.81)> Ni (1.57)> Pb (1.30)> Mn (1.21)> Fe (0.97), and for T. maritima: Ni (3.80)> Fe (2.08)> Cu (1.91)> Zn (1.84)> Pb (1.51)> Mn (1.31). Roots accumulated 50–70% of Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn of the total metal content in the plant while leaves and stems contained 30–50%. Fe was allocated mainly in the roots (80%). The ion-exchange capacity of the plant cell wall for P. maritima and T. maritima was established as follows correspondingly: 3570–3700 and 2710–3070 μmol g-1 dry cell weight per leaf; 2310–2350 and 1160–1250 μmol g-1 dry cell weight per root

    Moonlighting in Mitosis: Analysis of the Mitotic Functions of Transcription and Splicing Factors

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    Moonlighting proteins can perform one or more additional functions besides their primary role. It has been posited that a protein can acquire a moonlighting function through a gradual evolutionary process, which is favored when the primary and secondary functions are exerted in different cellular compartments. Transcription factors (TFs) and splicing factors (SFs) control processes that occur in interphase nuclei and are strongly reduced during cell division, and are therefore in a favorable situation to evolve moonlighting mitotic functions. However, recently published moonlighting protein databases, which comprise almost 400 proteins, do not include TFs and SFs with secondary mitotic functions. We searched the literature and found several TFs and SFs with bona fide moonlighting mitotic functions, namely they localize to specific mitotic structure(s), interact with proteins enriched in the same structure(s), and are required for proper morphology and functioning of the structure(s). In addition, we describe TFs and SFs that localize to mitotic structures but cannot be classified as moonlighting proteins due to insufficient data on their biochemical interactions and mitotic roles. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that most TFs and SFs with specific mitotic localizations have either minor or redundant moonlighting functions, or are evolving towards the acquisition of these functions

    Moonlighting in mitosis:Analysis of the mitotic functions of transcription and splicing factors

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    Moonlighting proteins can perform one or more additional functions besides their primary role. It has been posited that a protein can acquire a moonlighting function through a gradual evolutionary process, which is favored when the primary and secondary functions are exerted in different cellular compartments. Transcription factors (TFs) and splicing factors (SFs) control processes that occur in interphase nuclei and are strongly reduced during cell division, and are therefore in a favorable situation to evolve moonlighting mitotic functions. However, recently published moonlighting protein databases, which comprise almost 400 proteins, do not include TFs and SFs with secondary mitotic functions. We searched the literature and found several TFs and SFs with bona fide moonlighting mitotic functions, namely they localize to specific mitotic structure(s), interact with proteins enriched in the same structure(s), and are required for proper morphology and functioning of the structure(s). In addition, we describe TFs and SFs that localize to mitotic structures but cannot be classified as moonlighting proteins due to insufficient data on their biochemical interactions and mitotic roles. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that most TFs and SFs with specific mitotic localizations have either minor or redundant moonlighting functions, or are evolving towards the acquisition of these functions

    Time-Dependent Effects of CX3CR1 in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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    BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is an important secondary mechanism that is a key mediator of the long-term consequences of neuronal injury that occur in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglia are highly plastic cells with dual roles in neuronal injury and recovery. Recent studies suggest that the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1, FKN) mediates neural/microglial interactions via its sole receptor CX3CR1. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling modulates microglia activation, and depending upon the type and time of injury, either protects or exacerbates neurological diseases. METHODS: In this study, mice deficient in CX3CR1 were subjected to mild controlled cortical impact injury (CCI), a model of TBI. We evaluated the effects of genetic deletion of CX3CR1 on histopathology, cell death/survival, microglia activation, and cognitive function for 30 days post-injury. RESULTS: During the acute post-injury period (24 h-15 days), motor deficits, cell death, and neuronal cell loss were more profound in injured wild-type than in CX3CR1-/- mice. In contrast, during the chronic period of 30 days post-TBI, injured CX3CR1-/- mice exhibited greater cognitive dysfunction and increased neuronal death than wild-type mice. The protective and deleterious effects of CX3CR1 were associated with changes in microglia phenotypes; during the acute phase CX3CR1-/- mice showed a predominant anti-inflammatory M2 microglial response, with increased expression of Ym1, CD206, and TGFβ. In contrast, increased M1 phenotypic microglia markers, Marco, and CD68 were predominant at 30 days post-TBI. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these novel data demonstrate a time-dependent role for CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling after TBI and suggest that the acute and chronic responses to mild TBI are modulated in part by distinct microglia phenotypes

    Characterization of cerebral blood flow dynamics with multiscale entropy

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    Based on the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and the multiscale entropy (MSE), we study in this work the blood flow dynamics at the levels of cerebral veins and the surrounding network of microcerebral vessels. We discuss how the phenylephrine-related acute peripheral hypertension is reflected in the cerebral circulation and show that the observed changes are scale-dependent, and they are significantly more pronounced in microcerebral vessels, while the macrocerebral dynamics does not demonstrate authentic inter-group distinctions. We also consider the permeability of blood–brain barrier (BBB) and study its opening caused by sound exposure. We show that alterations associated with the BBB opening can be revealed by the analysis of blood flow at the level of macrocerebral vessels

    Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of shoe factory workers exposed to solvents.

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    We examined sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN; cytokinesis-block method) in cultured peripheral lymphocytes from 52 female workers of two shoe factories and from 36 unexposed age- and sex-matched referents. The factory workers showed an elevated level of urinary hippuric acid, a biomarker of toluene exposure, and workplace air contained high concentrations of various organic solvents such as toluene, gasoline, acetone, and (in one of the plants only) ethylacetate and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate. The shoe factory workers showed a statistically significant higher frequency of micronucleated binucleate lymphocytes in comparison with the referents. This finding agreed with three preliminary MN determinations (each comprising 27-32 shoe workers and 16-20 controls) performed in one of the plants 2-5 years earlier. The shoe factory workers also had a lower average level of blood hemoglobin than the referents. In contrast, no difference was found between the groups in SCE analysis. Smokers showed significantly higher mean frequencies of SCEs per cell and high frequency cells (HFC) than nonsmokers. Aging was associated with increased MN rates and reduced cell proliferation. Polymorphism of the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene (GSTM1) did not affect the individual level of SCEs; but in smoking shoe workers an effect of the occupational exposure on the frequency of micronucleated cells could be seen only in GSTM1 null subjects. The low prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype precluded the evaluation of the influence of GSTT1 polymorphism. Our results show that the shoe factory workers have experienced genotoxic exposure, which is manifest as an increase in the frequency of MN, but not of SCEs, in peripheral lymphocytes. The exposures responsible for the MN induction could not be identified with certainty, but exposure to benzene in gasoline and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate may explain some of the findings

    Consensus Paper: The Role of the Cerebellum in Perceptual Processes

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    Various lines of evidence accumulated over the past 30 years indicate that the cerebellum, long recognized as essential for motor control, also has considerable influence on perceptual processes. In this paper, we bring together experts from psychology and neuroscience, with the aim of providing a succinct but comprehensive overview of key findings related to the involvement of the cerebellum in sensory perception. The contributions cover such topics as anatomical and functional connectivity, evolutionary and comparative perspectives, visual and auditory processing, biological motion perception, nociception, self-motion, timing, predictive processing, and perceptual sequencing. While no single explanation has yet emerged concerning the role of the cerebellum in perceptual processes, this consensus paper summarizes the impressive empirical evidence on this problem and highlights diversities as well as commonalities between existing hypotheses. In addition to work with healthy individuals and patients with cerebellar disorders, it is also apparent that several neurological conditions in which perceptual disturbances occur, including autism and schizophrenia, are associated with cerebellar pathology. A better understanding of the involvement of the cerebellum in perceptual processes will thus likely be important for identifying and treating perceptual deficits that may at present go unnoticed and untreated. This paper provides a useful framework for further debate and empirical investigations into the influence of the cerebellum on sensory perception

    The Role of 5-ALA in Low-Grade Gliomas and the Influence of Antiepileptic Drugs on Intraoperative Fluorescence

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    Objectives: Intraoperative tumor visualization with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is widely applied for improved resection of high-grade gliomas. However, visible fluorescence is present only in a minority of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) according to current literature. Nowadays, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently administered to LGG patients prior to surgery. A recent in-vitro study demonstrated that AEDs result in significant reduction of PpIX synthesis in glioma cells. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the role of 5-ALA fluorescence in LGG surgery and the influence of AEDs on visible fluorescence.Patients and Methods: Patients with resection of a newly diagnosed suspected LGG after 5-ALA (25 mg/kg) administration were initially included. During surgery, the presence of visible fluorescence (none, mild, moderate, or bright) within the tumor and intratumoral fluorescence homogeneity (diffuse or focal) were analyzed. Tissue samples from fluorescing and/or non-fluorescing areas within the tumor and/or the assumed tumor border were collected for histopathological analysis (WHO tumor diagnosis, cell density, and proliferation rate). Only patients with diagnosis of LGG after surgery remained in the final study cohort. In each patient, the potential preoperative intake of AEDs was investigated.Results: Altogether, 27 patients with a histopathologically confirmed LGG (14 diffuse astrocytomas, 6 oligodendrogliomas, 4 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 gemistocytic astrocytomas, and one desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma) were finally included. Visible fluorescence was detected in 14 (52%) of 27. In terms of fluorescence homogeneity (n = 14), 7 tumors showed diffuse fluorescence, while in 7 gliomas focal fluorescence was noted. Cell density (p = 0.03) and proliferation rate (p = 0.04) was significantly higher in fluorescence-positive than in fluorescence-negative samples. Furthermore, 15 (56%) of 27 patients were taking AEDs before surgery. Of these, 11 patients (73%) showed no visible fluorescence. In contrast, 10 (83%) of 12 patients without prior AEDs intake showed visible fluorescence. Thus, visible fluorescence was significantly more common in patients without AEDs compared to patients with preoperative AED intake (OR = 0,15 (CI 95% 0.012–1.07), p = 0.046).Conclusions: Our study shows a markedly higher rate of visible fluorescence in a series of LGGs compared to current literature. According to our preliminary data, preoperative intake of AEDs seems to reduce the presence of visible fluorescence in such tumors and should thus be taken into account in the clinical setting

    An Inducible and Reversible Mouse Genetic Rescue System

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    Inducible and reversible regulation of gene expression is a powerful approach for uncovering gene function. We have established a general method to efficiently produce reversible and inducible gene knockout and rescue in mice. In this system, which we named iKO, the target gene can be turned on and off at will by treating the mice with doxycycline. This method combines two genetically modified mouse lines: a) a KO line with a tetracycline-dependent transactivator replacing the endogenous target gene, and b) a line with a tetracycline-inducible cDNA of the target gene inserted into a tightly regulated (TIGRE) genomic locus, which provides for low basal expression and high inducibility. Such a locus occurs infrequently in the genome and we have developed a method to easily introduce genes into the TIGRE site of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by recombinase-mediated insertion. Both KO and TIGRE lines have been engineered for high-throughput, large-scale and cost-effective production of iKO mice. As a proof of concept, we have created iKO mice in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which allows for sensitive and quantitative phenotypic analyses. The results demonstrated reversible switching of ApoE transcription, plasma cholesterol levels, and atherosclerosis progression and regression. The iKO system shows stringent regulation and is a versatile genetic system that can easily incorporate other techniques and adapt to a wide range of applications
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