612 research outputs found

    On real and observable realizations of input-output equations

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    Given a single algebraic input-output equation, we present a method for finding different representations of the associated system in the form of rational realizations; these are dynamical systems with rational right-hand sides. It has been shown that in the case where the input-output equation is of order one, rational realizations can be computed, if they exist. In this work, we focus first on the existence and actual computation of the so-called observable rational realizations, and secondly on rational realizations with real coefficients. The study of observable realizations allows to find every rational realization of a given first order input-output equation, and the necessary field extensions in this process. We show that for first order input-output equations the existence of a rational realization is equivalent to the existence of an observable rational realization. Moreover, we give a criterion to decide the existence of real rational realizations. The computation of observable and real realizations of first order input-output equations is fully algorithmic. We also present partial results for the case of higher order input-output equations

    Algebraic Geometry of Quantum Graphical Models

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    Algebro-geometric methods have proven to be very successful in the study of graphical models in statistics. In this paper we introduce the foundations to carry out a similar study of their quantum counterparts. These quantum graphical models are families of quantum states satisfying certain locality or correlation conditions encoded by a graph. We lay out several ways to associate an algebraic variety to a quantum graphical model. The classical graphical models can be recovered from most of these varieties by restricting to quantum states represented by diagonal matrices. We study fundamental properties of these varieties and provide algorithms to compute their defining equations. Moreover, we study quantum information projections to quantum exponential families defined by graphs and prove a quantum analogue of Birch's Theorem.Comment: 20 pages, comments welcome

    Gibbs Manifolds

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    Gibbs manifolds are images of affine spaces of symmetric matrices under the exponential map. They arise in applications such as optimization, statistics and quantum~physics, where they extend the ubiquitous role of toric geometry. The Gibbs variety is the zero locus of all polynomials that vanish on the Gibbs manifold. We compute these polynomials and show that the Gibbs variety is low-dimensional. Our theory is applied to a wide range of scenarios, including matrix pencils and quantum optimal transport.Comment: 22 page

    From algebra to analysis: new proofs of theorems by Ritt and Seidenberg

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    Ritt's theorem of zeroes and Seidenberg's embedding theorem are classical results in differential algebra allowing to connect algebraic and model-theoretic results on nonlinear PDEs to the realm of analysis. However, the existing proofs of these results use sophisticated tools from constructive algebra (characteristic set theory) and analysis (Riquier's existence theorem). In this paper, we give new short proofs for both theorems relying only on basic facts from differential algebra and the classical Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem for PDEs.Comment: 13 page