933 research outputs found

    Direct T-violation measurements and T-odd effects in decay experiments

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    Motivated by the recent experimental announcements for direct measurements of time-reversal non-invariance in the neutral kaon system, we make a comparative discussion of the CPLEAR and KTeV measurements. The most suitable way to consistently incorporate the mixing, the time evolution and the decays of kaons, is to describe the neutral kaon system as a system with a non-Hermitean Hamiltonian. In this framework, the physical (decaying) incoming and outgoing states are distinct and belong to dual spaces. Moreover, since they are eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian, they never oscillate. This is directly manifest in the orthogonality conditions of the physical states, which entirely determine the evolution of the kaon system. Along these lines we conclude: CPLEAR studies K0-bar{K0} oscillations, a process where initial and final states can be reversed, the CPLEAR asymmetry being an effect directly related to the definition of time-reversal. Conclusively, CPLEAR provides a direct measurement of T-violation without any assumption either on unitarity or on CPT-invariance. The KTeV experiment studies in particular the process KL -> pi+ pi- e+ e- where they measure a T-odd effect. However, using unitarity together with estimates of the final state interactions, it should be possible to determine whether this effect can be identified with a genuine T-reversal violation.Comment: 11 pages, no figures. Presented at the 34th Rencontres de Moriond on Electroweak Interactions and Unified Theories, Les Arcs, 13-20 March, 199

    Detection of the primary scintillation light from dense Ar, Kr and Xe with novel photosensitive gaseous detectors

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    The detection of primary scintillation light in combination with the charge or secondary scintillation signals is an efficient technique to determine the events t=0 as well as particle / photon separation in large mass TPC detectors filled with noble gases and/or condensed noble gases. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that costly photo-multipliers could be replaced by cheap novel photosensitive gaseous detectors: wire counters, GEMs or glass capillary tubes coupled with CsI photocathodes. We have performed systematic measurements with Ar, Kr and Xe gas at pressures in the range of 1-50 atm as well as some preliminary measurements with liquid Xe and liquid Ar. With the gaseous detectors we succeeded in detecting scintillation light produced by 22 keV X-rays with an efficiency of close to 100%. We also detected the scintillation light produced by bs (5 keV deposit energy) with an efficiency close to 25%. Successful detection of scintillation from 22 keV gammas open new experimental possibilities not only for nTOF and ICARUS experiments, but also in others, like WIMPs search through nuclear recoil emission

    Lost in translation: data integration tools meet the Semantic Web (experiences from the Ondex project)

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    More information is now being published in machine processable form on the web and, as de-facto distributed knowledge bases are materializing, partly encouraged by the vision of the Semantic Web, the focus is shifting from the publication of this information to its consumption. Platforms for data integration, visualization and analysis that are based on a graph representation of information appear first candidates to be consumers of web-based information that is readily expressible as graphs. The question is whether the adoption of these platforms to information available on the Semantic Web requires some adaptation of their data structures and semantics. Ondex is a network-based data integration, analysis and visualization platform which has been developed in a Life Sciences context. A number of features, including semantic annotation via ontologies and an attention to provenance and evidence, make this an ideal candidate to consume Semantic Web information, as well as a prototype for the application of network analysis tools in this context. By analyzing the Ondex data structure and its usage, we have found a set of discrepancies and errors arising from the semantic mismatch between a procedural approach to network analysis and the implications of a web-based representation of information. We report in the paper on the simple methodology that we have adopted to conduct such analysis, and on issues that we have found which may be relevant for a range of similar platformsComment: Presented at DEIT, Data Engineering and Internet Technology, 2011 IEEE: CFP1113L-CD

    Inflation in R2R^2 supergravity with non-minimal superpotentials

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    We investigate the cosmological inflation in a class of supergravity models that are generalizations of non-supersymmetric R2R^2 models. Although such models have been extensively studied recently, especially after the launch of the PLANCK and BICEP2 data, the class of models that can be constructed has not been exhausted. In this note, working in a supergravity model that is a generalization of Cecotti's model, we show that the appearance of new superpotential terms, which are quadratic in the superfield  Λ\, \Lambda that couples to the Ricci supermultiplet, alters substantially the form of the scalar potential. The arising potential has the form of the Starobinsky potential times a factor that is exponential in the inflaton field and dominates for large inflaton values. We show that the well-known Starobinsky inflation scenario is maintained only for unnaturally small fine-tuned values of the coupling describing the Λ2\Lambda^2 superpotential terms. A welcome feature is the possible increase of the tensor to scalar ratio rr, within the limits set by the new Planck and BICEP2 data.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, text and references added, version submitted to Phys. Lett.

    The Successful Operation of Hole-type Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

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    We have demonstrated that hole-type gaseous detectors, GEMs and capillary plates, can operate up to 77 K. For example, a single capillary plate can operate at gains of above 10E3 in the entire temperature interval between 300 until 77 K. The same capillary plate combined with CsI photocathodes could operate perfectly well at gains (depending on gas mixtures) of 100-1000. Obtained results may open new fields of applications for capillary plates as detectors of UV light and charge particles at cryogenic temperatures: noble liquid TPCs, WIMP detectors or LXe scintillating calorimeters and cryogenic PETs.Comment: Presented at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Roma, 200

    Novel Single Photon Detectors for UV Imaging

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    There are several applications which require high position resolution UV imaging. For these applications we have developed and successfully tested a new version of a 2D UV single photon imaging detector based on a microgap RPC. The main features of such a detectors is the high position resolution - 30 micron in digital form and the high quantum efficiency (1-8% in the spectral interval of 220-140 nm). Additionally, they are spark- protected and can operate without any feedback problems at high gains, close to a streamer mode. In attempts to extend the sensitivity of RPCs to longer wavelengths we have successfully tested the operation of the first sealed parallel-plate gaseous detectors with CsTe photocathodes. Finally, the comparison with other types of photosensitive detectors is given and possible fields of applications are identified.Comment: Presented at the 5th International Workshop on RICH detectors Playa del Carmen, Mexico, November 200

    A High Position Resolution X-ray Detector: an Edge on Illuminated Capillary Plate Combined with a Gas Amplification Structure

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    We have developed and successfully tested a prototype of a new type of high position resolution hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall lead glass capillary plate converter of X-rays combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with gas at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0-90 degree. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between 5-30 percent in a single step mode and up to 50 percent in a multi-layered combination. Depending on the capillary geometry, the position resolution achieved was between 0.050-0.250 mm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon energy or gas mixture. The usual lead glass capillary plates operated without noticeable charging up effects at counting rates of 50 Hz/mm2, and hydrogen treated capillaries up to 10E5 Hz/mm2. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.Comment: Presented at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Roma, Octber 200

    Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from <url>http://arena3d.org</url>. Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run.</p
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