2,165 research outputs found

    Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in low-mass bottom-quark pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions

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    We report a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry, A[subscript FB], in b[bar over b] pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions and identified by muons from semileptonic b-hadron decays. The event sample is collected at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector and corresponds to 6.9 fb[superscript −1] of integrated luminosity. We obtain an integrated asymmetry of A[subscript FB](b[bar over b])=(1.2± 0.7)% at the particle level for b-quark pairs with invariant mass, m[subscript b[bar over b]], down to 40 GeV/c[superscript 2] and measure the dependence of A[subscript FB](b[bar over b]) on m[subscript b[bar over b]]. The results are compatible with expectations from the standard model

    File-based data flow in the CMS Filter Farm

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    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1, the CMS Data Acquisition system underwent a partial redesign to replace obsolete network equipment, use more homogeneous switching technologies, and prepare the ground for future upgrades of the detector front-ends. The software and hardware infrastructure to provide input, execute the High Level Trigger (HLT) algorithms and deal with output data transport and storage has also been redesigned to be completely file- based. This approach provides additional decoupling between the HLT algorithms and the input and output data flow. All the metadata needed for bookkeeping of the data flow and the HLT process lifetimes are also generated in the form of small "documents" using the JSON encoding, by either services in the flow of the HLT execution (for rates etc.) or watchdog processes. These "files" can remain memory-resident or be written to disk if they are to be used in another part of the system (e.g. for aggregation of output data). We discuss how this redesign improves the robustness and flexibility of the CMS DAQ and the performance of the system currently being commissioned for the LHC Run 2.National Science Foundation (U.S.)United States. Department of Energ

    Online data handling and storage at the CMS experiment

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    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1, the CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) system underwent a partial redesign to replace obsolete network equipment, use more homogeneous switching technologies, and support new detector back-end electronics. The software and hardware infrastructure to provide input, execute the High Level Trigger (HLT) algorithms and deal with output data transport and storage has also been redesigned to be completely file- based. All the metadata needed for bookkeeping are stored in files as well, in the form of small documents using the JSON encoding. The Storage and Transfer System (STS) is responsible for aggregating these files produced by the HLT, storing them temporarily and transferring them to the T0 facility at CERN for subsequent offline processing. The STS merger service aggregates the output files from the HLT from ~62 sources produced with an aggregate rate of ~2GB/s. An estimated bandwidth of 7GB/s in concurrent read/write mode is needed. Furthermore, the STS has to be able to store several days of continuous running, so an estimated of 250TB of total usable disk space is required. In this article we present the various technological and implementation choices of the three components of the STS: the distributed file system, the merger service and the transfer system.United States. Department of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.

    CMS computing operations during run 1

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    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015

    First operational experience with the CMS Run Control System

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    The Run Control System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN's new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) controls the sub-detector and central data acquisition systems and the high-level trigger farm of the experiment. It manages around 10,000 applications that control custom hardware or handle the event building and the high-level trigger processing. The CMS Run Control System is a distributed Java system running on a set of Apache Tomcat servlet containers. Users interact with the system through a web browser. The paper presents the architecture of the CMS Run Control System and deals with operational aspects during the first phase of operation with colliding beams. In particular it focuses on performance, stability, integration with the CMS Detector Control System, integration with LHC status information and tools to guide the shifter.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)European Community. Marie-Curie Research Network

    The new CMS DAQ system for LHC operation after 2014 (DAQ2)

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    The Data Acquisition system of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/s. We are presenting the design of the 2nd generation DAQ system, including studies of the event builder based on advanced networking technologies such as 10 and 40 Gbit/s Ethernet and 56 Gbit/s FDR Infiniband and exploitation of multicore CPU architectures. By the time the LHC restarts after the 2013/14 shutdown, the current compute nodes, networking, and storage infrastructure will have reached the end of their lifetime. In order to handle higher LHC luminosities and event pileup, a number of sub-detectors will be upgraded, increase the number of readout channels and replace the off-detector readout electronics with a μTCA implementation. The second generation DAQ system, foreseen for 2014, will need to accommodate the readout of both existing and new off-detector electronics and provide an increased throughput capacity. Advances in storage technology could make it feasible to write the output of the event builder to (RAM or SSD) disks and implement the HLT processing entirely file based.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Marie Curie International Fellowshi

    10 Gbps TCP/IP streams from the FPGA for High Energy Physics

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    The DAQ system of the CMS experiment at CERN collects data from more than 600 custom detector Front-End Drivers (FEDs). During 2013 and 2014 the CMS DAQ system will undergo a major upgrade to address the obsolescence of current hardware and the requirements posed by the upgrade of the LHC accelerator and various detector components. For a loss-less data collection from the FEDs a new FPGA based card implementing the TCP/IP protocol suite over 10Gbps Ethernet has been developed. To limit the TCP hardware implementation complexity the DAQ group developed a simplified and unidirectional but RFC 793 compliant version of the TCP protocol. This allows to use a PC with the standard Linux TCP/IP stack as a receiver. We present the challenges and protocol modifications made to TCP in order to simplify its FPGA implementation. We also describe the interaction between the simplified TCP and Linux TCP/IP stack including the performance measurements.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Marie Curie International Fellowshi

    Measurement of the Top-Quark Mass with Dilepton Events Selected Using Neuroevolution at CDF

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    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass Mt in the dilepton decay channel tt̄→bl′+νl′b̄l-ν̄l. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0fb-1 of pp̄ collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of Mt=171.2±2.7(stat)±2.9(syst)GeV/c2

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Search for new physics in events with same-sign dileptons and jets in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    A search for new physics is performed based on events with jets and a pair of isolated, same-sign leptons. The results are obtained using a sample of proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb[superscript −1]. In order to be sensitive to a wide variety of possible signals beyond the standard model, multiple search regions defined by the missing transverse energy, the hadronic energy, the number of jets and b-quark jets, and the transverse momenta of the leptons in the events are considered. No excess above the standard model background expectation is observed and constraints are set on a number of models for new physics, as well as on the same-sign top-quark pair and quadruple-top-quark production cross sections. Information on event selection efficiencies is also provided, so that the results can be used to confront an even broader class of new physics models.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio
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