41 research outputs found

    Furosemide Enhances the Release of Endothelial Kinsis, Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin

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    Despite a wealth of data, the mechanism of the direct dilator effect of furosemide on the systemic arterial and venous systems is far from being satisfactorily understood. Therefore, we investigated whether furosemide is capable of stimulating the production of the endogenous vasodilators nitric oxide and prostacyclin in primary cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells by an enhanced synthesis and release of endothelium-derived kinins. Nitric oxide production was assessed in terms of intracellular guanosine cyclic-3',5' monophosphate accumulation; kinin and prostacyclin release were determined by specific radioimmunoassays. Furosemide concentration- and time- dependently increased the formation of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Maximal increases of both autacoids were already obtained after a 5-min incubation with 3 x 10(-7) to 10(-6) mol/l of furosemide. In the same concentration range, furosemide led to an enhanced release of kinins into the supernatant of the cells. This observation was supported by the inhibitory effect of the specific B2 kinin receptor antagonist icatibant (Hoe 140) on the furosemide-induced increase of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Thus the hemodynamic effects, and in particular the direct early dilator effect, of furosemide may be explained in part by an enhanced endothelial synthesis and release of bradykinin and related kinins, which in turn stimulates endothelial autacoid formation via B2 kinin receptor activation

    9-PAHSA displays a weak anti-inflammatory potential mediated by specific antagonism of chemokine G protein-coupled receptors

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    Introduction: 9-PAHSA belongs to a class of endogenous mammalian bioactive lipids, fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), that are present in circulation at nanomolar concentrations in mice and humans. Published preclinical data suggest beneficial effects of 9-PAHSA treatment on glucose metabolism as well as modulation of immune function. However, receptor molecules with high affinity towards these lipids have not been identified so far.Methods: In a broad screen of a panel of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) we discovered that 9-PAHSA displays antagonist activity with an IC50 in the micromolar range on selected chemokine receptors, namely, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5. The potential immunomodulatory activities in a human cellular model of innate immunity were then investigated.Results and discussion: In our in vitro experiments, a weak anti-inflammatory potential for high concentrations of 9-PAHSA (10–100 ”M) could be detected, as treatment reduced the LPS-induced secretion of certain chemokines, such as CXCL10, MIP-1 beta and MCP. Regarding metabolic effects, we re-investigated 9-PAHSA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in mice confirming conclusions from our earlier study that FAHFAs lack glucoregulatory activity following an acute treatment. In conclusion, the specific interactions with a subset of chemokine receptors may contribute to weak anti-inflammatory properties of 9-PAHSA, but further studies are needed to confirm its in anti-inflammatory potential in vivo

    Cardioprotective effects of lixisenatide in rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury studies

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    BACKGROUND: Lixisenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog which stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion and gastric emptying. We investigated cardioprotective effects of lixisenatide in rodent models reflecting the clinical situation. METHODS: The acute cardiac effects of lixisenatide were investigated in isolated rat hearts subjected to brief ischemia and reperfusion. Effects of chronic treatment with lixisenatide on cardiac function were assessed in a modified rat heart failure model after only transient coronary occlusion followed by long-term reperfusion. Freshly isolated cardiomyocytes were used to investigate cell-type specific mechanisms of lixisenatide action. RESULTS: In the acute setting of ischemia-reperfusion, lixisenatide reduced the infarct-size/area at risk by 36% ratio without changes on coronary flow, left-ventricular pressure and heart rate. Treatment with lixisenatide for 10 weeks, starting after cardiac ischemia and reperfusion, improved left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time and prevented lung congestion in comparison to placebo. No anti-fibrotic effect was observed. Gene expression analysis revealed a change in remodeling genes comparable to the ACE inhibitor ramipril. In isolated cardiomyocytes lixisenatide reduced apoptosis and increased fractional shortening. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) mRNA expression could not be detected in rat heart samples or isolated cardiomyocytes. Surprisingly, cardiomyocytes isolated from GLP-1 receptor knockout mice still responded to lixisenatide. CONCLUSIONS: In rodent models, lixisenatide reduced in an acute setting infarct-size and improved cardiac function when administered long-term after ischemia-reperfusion injury. GLP-1 receptor independent mechanisms contribute to the described cardioprotective effect of lixisenatide. Based in part on these preclinical findings patients with cardiac dysfunction are currently being recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study with lixisenatide. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ELIXA, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01147250

    Furosemide Enhances the Release of Endothelial Kinsis, Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin

    Get PDF
    Despite a wealth of data, the mechanism of the direct dilator effect of furosemide on the systemic arterial and venous systems is far from being satisfactorily understood. Therefore, we investigated whether furosemide is capable of stimulating the production of the endogenous vasodilators nitric oxide and prostacyclin in primary cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells by an enhanced synthesis and release of endothelium-derived kinins. Nitric oxide production was assessed in terms of intracellular guanosine cyclic-3',5' monophosphate accumulation; kinin and prostacyclin release were determined by specific radioimmunoassays. Furosemide concentration- and time- dependently increased the formation of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Maximal increases of both autacoids were already obtained after a 5-min incubation with 3 x 10(-7) to 10(-6) mol/l of furosemide. In the same concentration range, furosemide led to an enhanced release of kinins into the supernatant of the cells. This observation was supported by the inhibitory effect of the specific B2 kinin receptor antagonist icatibant (Hoe 140) on the furosemide-induced increase of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Thus the hemodynamic effects, and in particular the direct early dilator effect, of furosemide may be explained in part by an enhanced endothelial synthesis and release of bradykinin and related kinins, which in turn stimulates endothelial autacoid formation via B2 kinin receptor activation

    Activation of thyroid hormone receptor-ÎČ improved disease activity and metabolism independent of body weight in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis

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    Background and Purpose: Activation of hepatic thyroid hormone receptor ÎČ (THR-ÎČ) is associated with systemic lipid lowering, increased bile acid synthesis, and fat oxidation. In patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), treatment with THR-ÎČ agonists decreased hepatic steatosis and circulating lipids, and induced resolution of NASH. We chose resmetirom (MGL-3196), a liver-directed, selective THR-ÎČ agonist, as a prototype to investigate the effects of THR-ÎČ activation in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and biopsy-confirmed advanced NASH with fibrosis. Experimental Approach: C57Bl/6J mice were fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and cholesterol for 34 weeks, and only biopsy-confirmed DIO-NASH mice with fibrosis were included. Resmetirom was administered at a daily dose of 3 mg·kg−1 p.o., for 8 weeks. Systemic and hepatic metabolic parameters, histological non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity and fibrosis scores, and liver RNA expression profiles were determined to assess the effect of THR-ÎČ activation. Key Results: Treatment with resmetirom did not influence body weight but led to significant reduction in liver weight, hepatic steatosis, plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, liver and plasma cholesterol, and blood glucose. These metabolic effects translated into significant improvement in NAFLD activity score. Moreover, a lower content of α-smooth muscle actin and down-regulation of genes involved in fibrogenesis indicated a decrease in hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion and Implications: Our model robustly reflected clinical observations of body weight-independent improvements in systemic and hepatic metabolism including anti-steatotic activity
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