2,034 research outputs found

    Human tissue kallikrein in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

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    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. The most severe form of stroke results from large vessel occlusion of the major branches of the Circle of Willis. The treatment strategies currently available in Western countries for large vessel occlusion involve rapid restoration of blood flow through removal of the offending blood clot using mechanical or pharmacological means (e.g. tissue plasma activator or tPA). This review assesses prospects for a novel pharmacological approach to enhance the availability of the natural enzyme tissue kallikrein (KLK1), an important regulator of local blood flow. KLK1 is responsible for the generation of kinins (bradykinin and kallidin), which promote local vasodilation and long-term vascularization. Moreover, KLK1 has been used clinically as a direct treatment for multiple diseases associated with impaired local blood flow including AIS. A form of human KLK1 isolated from human urine is approved in the People’s Republic of China for subacute treatment of AIS. Here we review the rationale for using KLK1 as an additional pharmacological treatment for AIS by providing the biochemical mechanism as well as the human clinical data that support this approach

    High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data II: The Spring Equatorial Stripe

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    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u'g'r'i'z') imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from ~250 deg^2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of sky. Our success rate of identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92 and 5.03). All the quasars have i* < 20.2 with absolute magnitude -28.8 < M_B < -26.1 (h=0.5, q_0=0.5). Several of the quasars show unusual emission and absorption features in their spectra, including an object at z=4.62 without detectable emission lines, and a Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasar at z=4.92.Comment: 28 pages, AJ in press (Jan 2000), final version with minor changes; high resolution finding charts available at http://www.astro.princeton.edu/~fan/paper/qso2.htm

    Hypercontractile cardiac phenotype in mice overexpressing the regulatory subunit PR72 of protein phosphatase 2A

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    BackgroundThe activity, localization, and substrate specificity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimer are controlled by various regulatory B subunits. PR72 belongs to the B'' gene family and has been shown to be upregulated in human heart failure. However, little is known about the functions of PR72 in the myocardium.MethodsTo address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model with heart-specific overexpression of PP2A-PR72. Biochemical and physiological methods were used to determine contractility, Ca2+ cycling parameters, and protein phosphorylation.ResultsA 2.5-fold increase in PR72 expression resulted in moderate cardiac hypertrophy. Maximal ventricular pressure was increased in catheterized transgenic mice (TG) compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. This was accompanied by an increased shortening of sarcomere length and faster relaxation at the single-cell level in TG. In parallel with these findings, the peak amplitude of Ca2+ transients was increased, and the decay in intracellular Ca2+ levels was shortened in TG compared to WT. The changes in Ca2+ cycling in TG were also evident from an increase in the full duration and width at half maximum of Ca2+ sparks. Consistent with the contractile data, phosphorylation of phospholamban at threonine-17 was higher in TG hearts. The lower expression of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger may also contribute to the hypercontractile state in transgenic myocardium.ConclusionOur results suggest that PP2A-PR72 plays an important role in regulating cardiac contractile function and Ca2+ cycling, indicating that the upregulation of PR72 in heart failure is an attempt to compensate functionally

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey Imaging of Low Galactic Latitude Fields: Technical Summary and Data Release

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    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) mosaic camera and telescope have obtained five-band optical-wavelength imaging near the Galactic plane outside of the nominal survey boundaries. These additional data were obtained during commissioning and subsequent testing of the SDSS observing system, and they provide unique wide-area imaging data in regions of high obscuration and star formation, including numerous young stellar objects, Herbig-Haro objects and young star clusters. Because these data are outside the Survey regions in the Galactic caps, they are not part of the standard SDSS data releases. This paper presents imaging data for 832 square degrees of sky (including repeats), in the star-forming regions of Orion, Taurus, and Cygnus. About 470 square degrees are now released to the public, with the remainder to follow at the time of SDSS Data Release 4. The public data in Orion include the star-forming region NGC 2068/NGC 2071/HH24 and a large part of Barnard's loop.Comment: 31 pages, 9 figures (3 missing to save space), accepted by AJ, in press, see http://photo.astro.princeton.edu/oriondatarelease for data and paper with all figure

    The Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

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    This paper describes the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), marking the completion of the original goals of the SDSS and the end of the phase known as SDSS-II. It includes 11663 deg^2 of imaging data, with most of the roughly 2000 deg^2 increment over the previous data release lying in regions of low Galactic latitude. The catalog contains five-band photometry for 357 million distinct objects. The survey also includes repeat photometry over 250 deg^2 along the Celestial Equator in the Southern Galactic Cap. A coaddition of these data goes roughly two magnitudes fainter than the main survey. The spectroscopy is now complete over a contiguous area of 7500 deg^2 in the Northern Galactic Cap, closing the gap that was present in previous data releases. There are over 1.6 million spectra in total, including 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data release includes improved stellar photometry at low Galactic latitude. The astrometry has all been recalibrated with the second version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC-2), reducing the rms statistical errors at the bright end to 45 milli-arcseconds per coordinate. A systematic error in bright galaxy photometr is less severe than previously reported for the majority of galaxies. Finally, we describe a series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions, including better flat-fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities. (Abridged)Comment: 20 pages, 10 embedded figures. Accepted to ApJS after minor correction

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum
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