7,049 research outputs found

    Measurement of CP Violation at the Υ(4S)\Upsilon(4S) without Time Ordering or Δt\Delta t

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    I derive the expressions for the CP-violating asymmetry arising from interference between mixed and direct decays in the Upsilon(4S) system, for the case in which only one of the B decay times is observed, integrating over the decay time of the other B. I observe that neither the difference of the decay times Delta t, nor even their time-ordering, need be detected. A technique for measurement of the CP-violating weak decay parameter sin(2beta) is described which exploits this observation.Comment: 9 pages postscript, also available through http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLN

    Cytoskeleton structure, pattern of mitochondrial activity and ultrastructure of frozen or vitrified sheep embryos.

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    Even though sheep embryo cryopreservation is a commonly used procedure the survival and pregnancy outcomes can vary greatly. This study investigated whether cryopreservation was causing subtle changes in ultrastructure, mitochondrial activity or cytoskeletal integrity. Sheep embryos were either slow cooled in 1.5 M EG (n = 22), or vitrified in 20% EG + 20% DMSO with 0.5 M sucrose in Open Pulled Straws (OPS) (n = 24). One hour after warming the cryopreserved embryos differed from control embryos in that they had no mitochondrial activity combined with cytoskeletal disorganization and large vesicles. Vitrified embryos also showed many points of cytoskeleton disruption. Ultrastructural alterations resulting from actin filaments disorganization were observed in both cryopreserved groups. This includes areas presenting no cytoplasmic organelles, Golgi complex located far from the nucleus and a decrease of specialized intercellular junctions. Additionally, large vesicles were observed in vitrified morulae and early blastocysts. The alterations after cryopreservation were proportional to embryo quality as assessed using the stereomicroscope. Even in the absence of mitochondrial activity, grade I and II cryopreserved embryos contained mitochondria with normal ultrastructure. Embryos classified as grade I or II in the stereomicroscope revealed mild ultrastructural alterations, meaning that this tool is efficient to evaluate embryos after cryopreservation

    Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic candidates for halting the progression of diabetic nephropathy

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    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess pleiotropic properties that include immunomodulation, inhibition of apoptosis, fibrosis and oxidative stress, secretion of trophic factors, and enhancement of angiogenesis. These properties provide a broad spectrum for their potential in a wide range of injuries and diseases, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). MSCs are characterized by adherence to plastic, expression of the surface molecules CD73, CD90, and CD105 in the absence of CD34, CD45, HLA-DR, and CD14 or CD11b and CD79a or CD19 surface molecules, and multidifferentiation capacity in vitro. MSCs can be derived from many tissue sources, consistent with their broad, possibly ubiquitous distribution. This article reviews the existing literature and knowledge of MSC therapy in DN, as well as the most appropriate rodent models to verify the therapeutic potential of MSCs in DN setting. Some preclinical relevant studies are highlighted and new perspectives of combined therapies for decreasing DN progression are discussed. Hence, improved comprehension and interpretation of experimental data will accelerate the progress towards clinical trials that should assess the feasibility and safety of this therapeutic approach in humans. Therefore, MSC-based therapies may bring substantial benefit for patients suffering from DN.FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo/Sao Paulo Research Foundation) [2013/19560-6]CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico/National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development) [456959/2013-0]EFSD (European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes)Sociedade Beneficente Albert Einstein, Albert Einstein Hospital, 05652 São Paulo, SP, Brazil[University of São Paulo, 01246 São Paulo, SP, BrazilFederal University of São Paulo, 04023 São Paulo, SP, BrazilFederal University of São Paulo, 04023 São Paulo, SP, BrazilFAPESP: 2013/19560-6CNPq: 456959/2013-0Web of Scienc

    Operator Product Expansion for Exclusive Decays: B^+ ->Ds^+ e+e- and B^+ -> Ds^{*+} e+e-

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    The decays B+Ds,d+e+eB^+\to D_{s,d}^+e^+e^- and B+Ds,d+e+eB^+\to D_{s,d}^{*+}e^+e^- proceed through a weak and an electromagnetic interaction. This is a typical ``long distance'' process, usually difficult to compute systematically. We propose that over a large fraction of phase space a combination of an operator product and heavy quark expansions effectively turns this process into one in which the weak and electromagnetic interactions occur through a local operator. Moreover, we use heavy quark spin symmetry to relate all the local operators that appear in leading order of the operator expansion to two basic ones. We use this operator expansion to estimate the decay rates for B+Ds,d()+e+eB^+\to D_{s,d}^{(*)+}e^+e^-.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, Latex, published version in PR