141 research outputs found

    The asset-correlation parameter in Basel II for mortgages on single-family residences

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    Bank capital ; Risk management ; Basel capital accord ; Mortgages

    Subprime mortgages and the housing bubble

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    This paper explores the link between the house-price expectations of mortgage lenders and the extent of subprime lending. It argues that bubble conditions in the housing market are likely to spur subprime lending, with favorable price expectations easing the default concerns of lenders and thus increasing their willingness to extend loans to risky borrowers. Since the demand created by subprime lending feeds back onto house prices, such lending also helps to fuel an emerging housing bubble. The paper, however, focuses on the reverse causal linkage, where subprime lending is a consequence rather than a cause of bubble conditions. These ideas are illustrated in a theoretical model, and empirical work tests for a connection between price expectations and the extent of subprime lending.Subprime mortgage ; Global financial crisis

    Credit report accuracy and access to credit

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    Data that credit-reporting agencies maintain on consumers' credit-related experiences play a central role in U.S. credit markets. Analysts widely agree that the data enable these markets to function more efficiently and at lower cost than would otherwise be possible. Despite the great benefits of the current system, however, some analysts have raised concerns about the accuracy, timeliness, completeness, and consistency of consumer credit records and about the effects of data problems on the availability and cost of credit. ; In this article, the authors expand on the available research by quantifying the effects of credit record limitations on the access to credit. Using the credit records of a nationally representative sample of individuals, the authors examine the possible effects of data problems on consumers by estimating the changes in consumers' credit history scores that would result from "correcting" the problems in their credit records. Moreover, the authors report results for consumer groups segmented by strength of credit history (credit history score range), depth of credit history (number of credit accounts in a credit record), and selected demographic characteristics.Credit cards

    Switching costs and adverse selection in the market for credit cards: new evidence

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    To explain persistence of credit card interest rates at relatively high levels, Calem and Mester (AER, 1995) argued that informational barriers create switching costs for high-balance customers. As evidence, using data from the 1989 Survey of Consumer Finances, they showed that these households were more likely to be rejected when applying for new credit. In this paper, they revisit the question using the 1998 and 2001 SCF. Further, they use new information on card interest rates to test for pricing effects consistent with information-based switching costs. The authors find that informational barriers to competition persist, although their role may have declined. ; Also issued as Payment Cards Center Discussion Paper No. 05-09Credit cards

    An overview of consumer data and credit reporting

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    For some time, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has sought to obtain more detailed and timely information on the debt status, loan payment behavior, and overall credit quality of U.S. consumers. For decades, information of this type has been gathered by credit reporting companies primarily to assist creditors in evaluating the credit quality of current and prospective customers. To evaluate the potential usefulness of these data, the Federal Reserve Board engaged one of the three national consumer reporting companies to supply the credit records, without personal identifying information, of a nationally representative sample of individuals. This article describes the way the credit reporting companies compile and report their data and gives background on the regulatory structure governing these activities. This description is followed by a detailed look at the information collected in credit reports. Key aspects of the data that may be incomplete, duplicative, or ambiguous as they apply to credit evaluation are highlighted in the analysis. The article concludes with a discussion of steps that might be taken to address some of the issues identified. ; Also identified as FRB Philadelphia Payment Cards Center Discussion Paper 03-03Credit cards ; Consumer behavior

    Community Reinvestment and Credit Risk: Evidence from an Affordable-Home-Loan Program

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    This study examines the performance of home purchase loans originated by a major depository institution in Philadelphia under a flexible lending program between 1988 and 1994. We examine long-term delinquency in relation to neighborhood housing market conditions, borrower credit-history scores and other factors. We find that likelihood of delinquency declines with increasing neighborhood housing market activity. Also, likelihood of delinquency is greater for borrowers with low credit-history scores and those with high ratios of housing expense to income, and when the property is unusually expensive for the neighborhood where it is located

    The proconsumer argument for interstate branching

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    Branch banks ; Interstate banking

    The impact of geographic deregulation on small banks

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    Bank supervision

    Changes in the distribution of banking offices

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    The past twenty years have been marked by major structural and regulatory changes in the banking industry. This article explores the relationships between these changes and the distribution of "brick and mortar" banking offices between 1975 and 1995. The analysis explores how population shifts, deregulation, and mergers, acquisitions, and failures may have influenced changes in the number and location of banking offices. Special attention is given to changes in banking office distributions across neighborhoods grouped by the median income of their residents and their central city, suburban, or rural location.Banks and banking ; Banking structure

    The strange behavior of the credit card market

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    Credit cards ; Interest rates
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