439 research outputs found

    Capecitabine in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

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    To evaluate the therapeutic effects and systemic toxicities of a capecitabine-based home therapy regimen in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, 30 patients were enrolled in a phase II clinical trial. Treatment consisted of oral capecitabine combined with subcutaneous recombinant human interferon-α 2a, recombinant human interleukin-2 and oral 13-cis-retinoic acid. There were two (7%) complete responses (CRs) and eight (27%) partial remissions (PRs), for an overall objective response rate of 34% (95% CI 17–53%). Except one, all responses are ongoing, with a median duration of 9+ and 8+ months for CRs and PRs, respectively. Additionally, 12 patients (40%) reached stable disease. Eight patients (27%) showed continued disease progression despite treatment. Therapy was well tolerated and was given in the outpatient setting. Capecitabine-related World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 and 3 toxicities were observed in five and two patients respectively, and were limited to fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea, stomatitis, dermatitis and hand-and-foot syndrome. The substitution of capecitabine for 5-FU in the pre-existing biochemotherapy regimen did not result in a reduced therapeutic efficacy and showed significant anti-tumour activity in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaig

    Interplay between topography, fog and vegetation in the central South Arabian mountains revealed using a novel Landsat fog detection technique

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    In the central South Arabian mountains of Yemen and Oman, monsoon fog interception by the endemic cloud forest is essential for ecosystem functions and services. Yet, we know little about the local factors affecting fog distributions and their cumulative effects on vegetation. To examine these relationships, we developed a novel method of high-resolution fog detection using Landsat data, and validated the results using occurrence records of eight moisture-sensitive plant species. Regression tree analysis was then used to examine the topographic factors influencing fog distributions and the topoclimatic factors influencing satellite-derived vegetation greenness. We find that topography affects fog distributions. Specifically, steep windward slopes obstruct the inland movement of fog, resulting in heterogenous fog densities and hotspots of fog interception. We find that fog distributions explain patterns of vegetation greenness, and overall, that greenness increases with fog density. The layer of fog density describes patterns of vegetation greenness more accurately than topographic variables alone, and thus, we propose that regional vegetation patterns more closely follow a fog gradient, than an altitudinal gradient as previously supposed. The layer of fog density will enable an improved understanding of how species and communities, many of which are endemic, range-restricted, and in decline, respond to local variability in topoclimatic conditions

    Precision of maxillo-mandibular registration with intraoral scanners in vitro

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    Purpose: To compare the precision of maxillo-mandibular registration and resulting full arch occlusion produced by three intraoral scanners in vitro. Methods: Six dental models (groups A–F) were scanned five times with intraoral scanners (CEREC, TRIOS, PLANMECA), producing both full arch and two buccal maxillo-mandibular scans. Total surface area of contact points (defined as regions within 0.1 mm and all mesh penetrations) was measured, and the distances between four pairs of key points were compared, each two in the posterior and anterior. Results: Total surface area of contact points varied significantly among scanners across all groups. CEREC produced the smallest contact surface areas (5.7–25.3 mm2), while PLANMECA tended to produce the largest areas in each group (22.2–60.2 mm2). Precision of scanners, as measured by the 95% CI range, varied from 0.1–0.9 mm for posterior key points. For anterior key points the 95% CI range was smaller, particularly when multiple posterior teeth were still present (0.04–0.42 mm). With progressive loss of posterior units (groups D–F), differences in the anterior occlusion among scanners became significant in five out of six groups (D–F left canines and D, F right canines, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Maxillo-mandibular registrations from three intraoral scanners created significantly different surface areas of occlusal contact. Posterior occlusions revealed lower precision for all scanners than anterior. CEREC tended towards incorrect posterior open bites, whilst TRIOS was most consistent in reproducing occluding units

    Trueness of CAD/CAM digitization with a desktop scanner – an in vitro study

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    Desktop scanners are devices for digitization of conventional impressions or gypsum casts by indirect Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in dentistry. The purpose of this in vitro study was: 1, to investigate whether virtual models produced by the extraoral scanner have the same trueness as sectioned casts; and 2, to assess if digitization with an extraoral scanner influences the surface information

    Combination chemotherapy with or without s.c. IL-2 and IFN-α: results of a prospectively randomized trial of the Cooperative Advanced Malignant Melanoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (ACIMM)

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    The purpose of this randomized trial was to evaluate the efficacy of combination chemoimmunotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone. A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive intravenous cisplatin (35 mg m−2, days 1–3), carmustine (150 mg m−2, day 1, cycles 1 and 3 only), dacarbacine (220 mg m−2, days 1–3) and oral tamoxifen (20 mg m−2, daily) in combination with (n=64) or without (n=60) sequential subcutaneous IL-2 and IFN-α. In those patients who received sequential immunotherapy, each cycle of chemotherapy was followed by outpatient s.c. IL-2 (10×106 IU m−2, days 3–5, week 4; 5×106 IU m−2, days 1, 3, 5, week 5) and s.c. IFN-α (5×106 IU m−2, day 1, week 4; days 1, 3, 5, week 5). The overall response rate of patients treated with the combination of chemotherapy and IL-2/IFN-α was 34.3% with seven complete responses (10.9%) and 15 partial responses (23.4%). In patients treated with chemotherapy, only, the overall response rate was 29.9% with eight complete responses (13.3%) and 10 partial responses (16.6%). There was no significant difference in median progression free survival (0 months vs 4 months) and in median overall survival (12 months vs 13 months) for combined chemoimmunotherapy and for chemotherapy, respectively

    Entrepreneurs’ mental health and well-being:A review and research agenda

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    Interest in entrepreneurs’ mental health and well-being (MWB) is growing in recognition of the role of MWB in entrepreneurs’ decision making, motivation, and action. Yet relevant knowledge is dispersed across disciplines, which makes what we currently understand about entrepreneurs’ MWB unclear. In this systematic review I integrate insights from 144 empirical studies. These studies show that research is focused on three research questions: (1) Do different types of entrepreneurs differ in their MWB? What are the (2) antecedents and (3) consequences of entrepreneurs’ MWB? The review systematizes evidence on known antecedents and consequences of entrepreneurs’ MWB but also reveals overlooked and undertheorized sources and outcomes of entrepreneurs’ MWB. The review provides a mapping and framework that advance research on entrepreneurs’ MWB and help to position entrepreneurs’ MWB more centrally in management and entrepreneurship research. It calls for researchers to go beyond applying models developed for employees to understand entrepreneurs. Instead, the findings point the way to developing a dedicated theory of entrepreneurial work and MWB that is dynamic, socialized, and open to considering context and acknowledges variability and fluidity across entrepreneurs’ life domains, as well as the centrality of work for entrepreneurs’ identity

    Livestock browsing affects the species composition and structure of cloud forest in the Dhofar Mountains of Oman

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    Questions: It is frequently reported that overstocking of camels, cattle and goats is degrading the Anogeissus cloud forest, which is endemic to a 200 km stretch of coastal mountains in southern Arabia. However, livestock impacts on the vegetation have not been assessed. Furthermore, we have a limited understanding of the impacts of large-bodied browsing livestock, such as camels, in woodland and forest rangelands. Therefore, in this study, we examine the effects of livestock browsing on the species composition, density, and hytomorphology of woody vegetation in the Anogeissus cloud forests in the Dhofar Mountains of Oman. Location: Data was collected at 30 sites in the Jabal Qamar mountain range in western Dhofar, Oman. Methods: The point-centered quarter method was used to sample the composition, density and structure of woody vegetation. Constrained correspondence analysis was used to quantify the effects of livestock browsing on woody plant species composition, whilst effects on plant density were analysed using mixed effects models. Standardised major axis regression was used to examine differences in height-diameter allometry (stunting) under different stocking rates. Results: Fog density, topographic position and long-term stocking rates were found to be important factors affecting woody species composition. We found lower species diversity and plant density, and higher frequencies of unpalatable species, under higher stocking rates. Juveniles showed a stronger response to stocking rates than adults, and several common species exhibited stunted morphology under high stocking rates. Conclusions: Browsing by large-bodied livestock, such as camels and cattle, can substantially alter the species composition, structure, and phytomorphology of woody vegetation in semi-arid woodlands and forests. Juveniles are particularly susceptible to browsing which alters woody vegetation demography and inhibits regeneration potential. Our results support previous suggestions of overstocking in Dhofar and highlight the importance of swift measures to reduce livestock browsing pressure in the Anogeissus cloud forests
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