295 research outputs found

    Project risk management and its application into the automotive manufacturing industry: executive summary

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    In today's competitive environment, there is a continual need for organisations to invest substantial amounts of resource into the development and manufacture of products and processes, and Automotive Manufacturing Organisations are no exception to this. However, if the success rate of the projects undertaken by these organisations could be increased, then the level of resources invested in these projects could potentially be reduced. The management of risk offers a method through which the success rate of projects can be increased. However, as yet, many organisations within the Automotive Manufacturing Sector have not undertaken to integrate a rigorous method of managing the risks to their projects. This work focuses on the development and implementation of a project Risk Management Methodology into the Automotive Manufacturing Industry. The methodology was developed from a rigorous examination into the use of project and risk management into the Automotive Manufacturing Industry, as well as an investigation of risk management and project risk management processes within both the industrial and academic domains. Therefore, the Risk Management Methodology was designed to fit the needs of the users within the Automotive Manufacturing Industry, and as such, is compatible with the project management methods used within this industrial sector. The deliverables of the Risk Management Methodology were compared to 9 risk management processes and were found to give additional benefits to these processes. These were identified as the realisation of quality benefits, improvements to the technology and changes to working practices from reactive to pro-active management, which indicate that the Risk Management Methodology is more suited to Automotive Manufacturing Organisations than the other risk management processes. The Risk Management Methodology is a cyclic process, consisting of 5 stages; identification, assessment, analysis, reduction and/or mitigation and monitoring of the risks. Various tools have been developed as part of the Risk Management Methodology. They are the Front-End Assessment Tool to determine if there is a potential need to use the Risk Management Methodology, a Risk Register Database System to document the identified risks irrespective of geographical location, and the Risk Assessment Tool to enable the level of risk within the project to be reported. In addition to this, a Tracking Tool for Research and Technology Projects, based on the requirements of Rover's Technology Strategy Team, was developed to enable the probability of success of technology projects to be determined and tracked throughout their lifespan. The application of the Risk Management Methodology into 7 projects within the Rover/BMW group enabled the methods through which the assessment of the risks as well as the use of numbers within the tools themselves to be critiqued, as well as benefits of the use of the methodology and the tools to be ascertained. What was determined from its implementation was that it enabled the risks to be made visible through their identification, assessment, analysis and management. Deviations from the proposed plan could be identified, and an effort made to reduce and/or mitigate against the effects of the risks. In addition, the decision making process was improved, through increasing the amount of relevant information within the project and that there was identified a change in the working practices of the individuals and teams, from reactive, firefighting to pro-active management of the project. In conclusion, the Risk Management Methodology and its associated tools and techniques provides the means by which the risks and potential problems within projects in the Automotive Manufacturing Sector can be actively managed and as such, enables the projects to be completed successfully

    Applicant Reactions to a Situational Judgment Test used for Selection into Initial Teacher Training

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    We considered applicants’ perceptions of the use of a pilot situational judgment test (SJT) designed for selection into primary and secondary teacher training programs in the UK. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 304 applicants (73% female) to two postgraduate (PGCE) training programs in the 2013-2014 application cycle. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the content of the SJTs and on the appropriateness of the tests for selection into teacher training. Results from the rating scales showed that most of the applicants (76.7%) found the content and format of the pilot selection tool favourable. Results from open-ended questions suggested that applicants were aware of issues of procedural justice and fairness in selection for teacher training, with a recommendation that separate selection tests should be created for primary and secondary applicants

    Evaluation of two selection tests for recruitment into radiology specialty training

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    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether two selection tests previously validated for primary care General Practice (GP) trainee selection could provide a valid shortlisting selection method for entry into specialty training for the secondary care specialty of radiology. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from radiology applicants who also applied to UK GP specialty training or Core Medical Training. The psychometric properties of the two selection tests, a clinical problem solving (CPS) test and situational judgement test (SJT), were analysed to evaluate their reliability. Predictive validity of the tests was analysed by comparing them with the current radiology selection assessments, and the licensure examination results taken after the first stage of training (Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) Part 1). RESULTS: The internal reliability of the two selection tests in the radiology applicant sample was good (α ≥ 0.80). The average correlation with radiology shortlisting selection scores was r = 0.26 for the CPS (with p < 0.05 in 5 of 11 shortlisting centres), r = 0.15 for the SJT (with p < 0.05 in 2 of 11 shortlisting centres) and r = 0.25 (with p < 0.05 in 5 of 11 shortlisting centres) for the two tests combined. The CPS test scores significantly correlated with performance in both components of the FRCR Part 1 examinations (r = 0.5 anatomy; r = 0.4 physics; p < 0.05 for both). The SJT did not correlate with either component of the examination. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPS test may be an appropriate selection method for shortlisting in radiology but would benefit from further refinement for use in radiology to ensure that the test specification is relevant. The evidence on whether the SJT may be appropriate for shortlisting in radiology is limited. However, these results may be expected to some extent since the SJT is designed to measure non-academic attributes. Further validation work (e.g. with non-academic outcome variables) is required to evaluate whether an SJT will add value in recruitment for radiology specialty training and will further inform construct validity of SJTs as a selection methodology

    The validity and incremental validity of knowledge tests, low-fidelity simulations, and high-fidelity simulations for predicting job performance in advanced-level high-stakes selection

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    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of knowledge tests, low-fidelity simulations, and high-fidelity simulations in advanced-level high-stakes settings. A model and hypotheses of how these 3 predictors work in combination to predict job performance were developed. In a sample of 196 applicants, all 3 predictors were significantly related to job performance. Both the SJT and the AC had incremental validity over the knowledge test. Moreover, the AC had incremental validity over the SJT. Model tests showed that the SJT fully mediated the effects of declarative knowledge on job performance, whereas the AC partially mediated the effects of the SJT

    The Predictive Validity of a Text-Based Situational Judgment Test in Undergraduate Medical and Dental School Admissions

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    PROBLEM: Situational judgment tests (SJTs) can be used to assess the nonacademic attributes necessary for medical and dental trainees to become successful practitioners. Evidence for SJTs' predictive validity, however, relates predominantly to selection in postgraduate settings or using video-based SJTs at the undergraduate level; it may not be directly transferable to text-based SJTs in undergraduate medical and dental school selection. This preliminary study aimed to address these gaps by assessing the validity of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) text-based SJT. APPROACH: Study participants were 218 first-year medical and dental students from four UK undergraduate schools who completed the first UKCAT text-based SJT in 2013. Outcome measures were educational supervisor ratings of in-role performance in problem-based learning tutorial sessions-mean rating across the three domains measured by the SJT (integrity, perspective taking, and team involvement) and an overall judgment of performance-collected in 2015. OUTCOMES: There were significant correlations between SJT scores and both mean supervisor ratings (uncorrected r = 0.24, P < .001; corrected r = 0.34) and overall judgments (uncorrected rs = 0.16, P < .05; corrected rs = 0.20). SJT scores predicted 6% of variance in mean supervisor ratings across the three nonacademic domains. NEXT STEPS: The results provide evidence that a well-designed text-based SJT can be appropriately integrated, and add value to, the selection process for undergraduate medical and dental school. More evidence is needed regarding the longitudinal predictive validity of SJTs throughout medical and dental training pathways, with appropriate outcome criteria

    The development and process evaluation of PEER : a camp-based programme for adolescents impacted by cancer

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    Adolescents impacted by their own or a relative’s cancer diagnosis experience significant psychosocial needs. Residential programmes provide opportunities to address these, yet limited evaluation research and unclear reporting of therapeutic and theoretical underpinnings complicate efforts to understand programme effects. This paper reports the development and process evaluation of PEER, a four-day programme with psychosocial (acceptance and commitment therapy, self-compassion) and recreational components for adolescents impacted by their own or a parent/sibling’s cancer. Staff (N = 51) and adolescents (N = 148, 12–17 years) who attended a PEER programme participated in this evaluation. The evaluation of fidelity included measures of facilitators’ confidence to deliver content, adherence to the programme manual, quality of programme delivery, participants’ engagement, and overall satisfaction. The process evaluation included assessment of quality of life, distress, and process variables (psychological flexibility, mindfulness, self-compassion) at pre-programme, post-programme, and two-month follow-up, as well as qualitative feedback from participants and facilitators. Moderation analyses identified predictors of clinically significant improvement in psychosocial outcomes. The programme was delivered with good fidelity, and participants reported high satisfaction and engagement. Approximately 15–20% of participants experienced clinically-meaningful improvements in distress and quality of life; those who reported higher distress and lower baseline psychological flexibility, mindfulness and self-kindness experienced greater improvements. Qualitative feedback additionally evidenced the value of peer connection and support. The evaluation evidences PEER’s feasibility, acceptability and value for adolescents impacted by cancer, particularly those experiencing greater distress. Its success indicates the potential of the therapeutic approaches used, and for community organisations to develop interventions complementing services offered by healthcare systems

    The Impact of Visual Field Loss on Driving Skills: A Systematic Narrative Review

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    Purpose: To review the evidence on the impact of visual field loss on skills required for driving. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using a systematic approach. Papers within scope were identified by two independent reviewers, and papers were grouped into similar themes for discussion. Key findings: Evidence suggests that both binocular and monocular visual field defects have a negative impact on driving skills. Both central and peripheral cause difficulties, but the degree of impact is dependent on the defect severity and compensation ability. Many factors that affect compensation to visual field loss and the effects of visual field loss on driving skills are discussed, including cognitive status, age and duration of visual field loss. In summary, in central visual field loss compensation, strategies include reduction of overall driving speed; whereas, in peripheral field loss, increased scanning is reported to aid adaptation. Conclusions: For driving, there is evidence that complete and/or binocular visual field loss poses more of a difficulty than partial and/or monocular loss, and central defects cause more problems than peripheral defects. A lack of evidence exists concerning the impact of superior versus inferior defects. The level of peripheral vision loss that is incompatible with safe driving remains unknown, as compensation abilities vary widely between individuals. This review highlights a lack of evidence in relation to the impact of visual field loss on driving skills. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence to allow clinicians to better support people with visual field loss with driving advice
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